About This Chapter
Praxis Environmental Education: Soil, Rocks, and Plate Tectonics
Use the lessons in this chapter to help you review the facts about the tectonic plates and their movement, earthquakes, volcanoes, the structure of the Earth's layers, and more. You'll learn about theories of the formation of the Earth and a timeline of the major eras in Earth's geological history to prepare you for the Praxis environmental education exam. The videos in this chapter cover these topics:
- The formation and composition of soil: Definition and factors
- Textures of soil: Sand, silt, and clay
- Plate tectonics: A unified theory for change of the Earth's surface
- Causes of tectonic plate movement
- Earthquakes and volcanoes: Evidence of Earth's inner layers
- Plate boundaries: Convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries
- Rock cycle: Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic Rocks
- Effect of erosion and deposition on landforms
- Formation of the Earth: Theories
- The history of life on Earth: Timeline and characteristics of major eras
Objectives of the Praxis: Environmental Education
The Praxis: Environmental Education exam tests your environmental science education knowledge and your general teaching skills. Your score on the test helps determine your eligibility for K-12 teacher licensing or certification, as required by the state in which you'll teach, or for some professional teaching organizations that require it.
Questions pertaining to this chapter appear on the 'Earth and Physical Sciences as Relevant to Environmental Science Education' portion of the exam. This portion makes up about 13% of the total exam, or about 17 questions.
You'll answer 130 multiple-choice questions on the test in all. Use the self-assessment quizzes included with each lesson in this chapter to see how well you're learning the material and gain experience with the kinds of questions you'll see on the actual exam.
1. The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors
While the term 'soil' is often simply associated with dirt, it is actually a complex mixture of elements that has unique physical characteristics. Learn what soil really is and explore its layers and how different factors contribute to its formation.
2. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
Plate tectonics involve a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. Explore this theory, what causes plates to move, and learn about the term lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, and core.
3. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement
Tectonic plates are huge moving pieces of the Earth's crust and there are different mechanisms that can explain the causes of their movement. Learn about the different forces and mechanisms involved in the plate movement process, including thermal convection, ridge push, slab pull, and trench suction.
4. Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Evidence of Earth's Inner Layers
Volcanoes, rising high above the ground, and the earthquakes that shake many cities on the surface reveal some of the secrets to the inside layers of the earth. The characteristics of volcanic magma, such as silica and explosivity, are studied as evidence along with S waves, P waves, and the shadow zone of an earthquake to generate the models we know of the center of the earth.
5. Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries
The three types of plate boundaries are divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries. Explore these boundaries, the theory of plate tectonics, and how convection currents cause the Earth's plates to move.
6. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
The rock cycle describes the creation, alteration and destruction of the rocks that form from magma. Learn more about the rock cycle, including the three main rock types - igneous (magma that solidifies), sedimentary (rock made from eroded materials that are cemented together), and metamorphic (rocks that are transformed into new substances when exposed to intense heat and pressure) - and how they are formed.
7. Effect of Erosion and Deposition on Landforms
Erosion and deposition affect landforms through the movement of broken-down rock from place to place, and the laying down of broken rock. Explore the process and differences between mechanical and chemical weathering and learn about landforms and how erosion and deposition affect landforms.
8. Formation of the Earth: Theories
The planet Earth has over 4 billion years of existence and its existence derives from interstellar dust and gas. Explore the theories that explain how the planet Earth was formed, including how it differentiated into three layers, how it formed its atmosphere, water, and land features, and how it continues to evolve today.
9. The History of Life on Earth: Timeline and Characteristics of Major Eras
Life on Earth started millions of years ago and these periods are classified into several major eras defined by the characteristics of the organisms existing within the appropriate timelines. Learn about the characteristics of different organisms that existed during major timelines in history.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Environmental Education: Practice and Study Guide course
- Praxis Environmental Education: Scientific Inquiry Processes in Environmental Science
- Praxis Environmental Education: Scientific Methodology
- Praxis Environmental Education: Techniques Used in Scientific Inquiry
- Praxis Environmental Education: Environmental Science Education
- Praxis Environmental Education: Population Growth & Carrying Capacity
- Praxis Environmental Education: Ecosystem Interaction & Species Relationships
- Praxis Environmental Education: Organizational Levels in Environmental Science
- Praxis Environmental Education: Biodiversity, Niche & Habitat
- Praxis Environmental Education: Energy Flow in the Environment
- Praxis Environmental Education: Biochemical Cycles & Changes in Ecosystems
- Praxis Environmental Education: Reproductive Strategies of Plants & Animals
- Praxis Environmental Education: Physical Aspects of Water Systems
- Praxis Environmental Education: Defining Characteristics of Life
- Biological Evolution & Natural Selection
- Praxis Environmental Education: Atmospheric Layers & Composition
- Praxis Environmental Education: Climate Variations & Weather Patterns
- Praxis Environmental Education: Basic Principles of Chemistry
- Praxis Environmental Education: Earth's Resources & Energy Sources
- Praxis Environmental Education: Humans & Catastrophic Events
- Praxis Environmental Education: Pollution
- Praxis Environmental Education: Impact of Disposal Methods
- Praxis Environmental Education: Environmental Health Issues
- Praxis Environmental Education: Ecosystem Services
- Praxis Environmental Education: Agriculture & The Green Revolution
- Praxis Environmental Education: Urban Development & Transportation Systems
- Praxis Environmental Education: Drilling & Mining
- Praxis Environmental Education: Preservation, Mitigation & Restoration of Habitats
- Praxis Environmental Education: Environmental Laws & Regulations
- Praxis Environmental Education: Environmental Attitudes, Values & Philosophies
- Praxis Environmental Education Flashcards