About This Chapter
Praxis II General Science: Basic Biochemistry of Life - Chapter Summary
The beginnings of life exist at levels completely invisible to the naked eye. This chapter of lessons in the Praxis II General Science course provides you with a virtual microscope with which you can study the concepts of biochemistry that will make an appearance on the Praxis exam. Along with the components of DNA, topics in this chapter include the following:
- Cellular respiration
- The electron transport chain
- Examples of alcoholic fermentation
- The double helix structure of DNA
- Chemical structures of nucleic acids
- Complementary base pairings in DNA
- RNA vs. DNA
- Carbohydrates and lipids
- Types of proteins
- Functions of enzymes and co-enzymes
- Regulation and inhibition
The video lessons all come equipped with a timeline feature. Located right below the presentation, they allow for easy access to any portion of the lesson without having to worry about skipping or missing any of the content. When you decide you need a break, the lessons can also be viewed on your mobile device, so you can take them with you when you are ready to resume your studying.
1. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
2. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
3. Lactic Acid & Alcoholic Fermentation: Comparison, Contrast & Examples
When in an anaerobic environment, some cells can use glycolysis and fermentation to keep producing ATP. Lactic acid fermentation happens in our muscle cells when we are exercising feverishly, while alcoholic fermentation is used in yeast cells and is what leads to beer, bread, and wine.
4. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
5. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
6. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
7. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
8. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
9. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
10. Proteins: Structure, Function & Types
Without proteins you couldn't survive. But how much do you know about them? This lesson will explore the structure and function of proteins, and list some types of proteins you might encounter.
11. The Function of Enzymes
Have you ever used a drill to accelerate building something that only requires a screwdriver? It went a lot faster, didn't it? In this lesson, you'll learn how that drill is a lot like an enzyme.
12. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
13. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
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Other chapters within the Praxis General Science (5435): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis General Science: Methodology, Techniques & History
- Praxis General Science: Matter
- Praxis General Science: Energy
- Praxis General Science: Atomic Structure
- Praxis General Science: Radioactivity
- Praxis General Science: Thermodynamics
- Praxis General Science: Periodicity
- Praxis General Science: Gases
- Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Kinetics
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Reaction Equilibrium
- Praxis General Science: Oxidation Reduction
- Praxis General Science: Acid-Base Chemistry
- Praxis General Science: Solutions & Solubility
- Praxis General Science: Mechanics
- Praxis General Science: Newton's Laws & Motion in Physics
- Praxis General Science: Linear & Angular Momentum
- Praxis General Science: Oscillations
- Praxis General Science: Laws of Gravitation
- Praxis General Science: Work, Energy & Power
- Praxis General Science: Fluid Mechanics
- Praxis General Science: Magnetism & Electricity
- Praxis General Science: Electrical Forces & Fields
- Praxis General Science: Potential & Capacitance
- Praxis General Science: Optics & Waves
- Praxis General Science: Cell Biology
- Praxis General Science: Prokaryotic Cells
- Praxis General Science: Protists, Fungi & Viruses
- Praxis General Science: Plant Cells
- Praxis General Science: The Transcription & Translation Process
- Praxis General Science: Cell Reproduction & Division
- Praxis General Science: Basic Genetics
- Praxis General Science: DNA Replication
- Praxis General Science: Theory & Key Mechanisms of Evolution
- Praxis General Science: Hierarchical Classification Scheme
- Praxis General Science: Plant Structures & Functions
- Praxis General Science: Human Body Systems
- Praxis General Science: Human Reproductive Systems & Development
- Praxis General Science: Key Aspects of Ecology
- Praxis General Science: Minerals & Rocks
- Praxis General Science: Earth's Structure & Internal Processes
- Praxis General Science: Changing Earth's Surfaces
- Praxis General Science: Historical Geology
- Praxis General Science: Earth's Bodies of Water
- Praxis General Science: Meteorology & Climate
- Praxis General Science: Astronomy
- Praxis General Science: Science, Technology & Society
- Praxis General Science Flashcards