About This Chapter
Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure - Chapter Summary
This chapter is composed of a series of short lessons that are taught by our expert instructors. They'll help you improve your understanding of chemical bonds and structures. Following your exploration of these lessons, you should be ready to do the following on the Praxis General Science exam:
- Explain Lewis structures of atoms and the octet rule
- Define a chemical formula
- Examine chemical nomenclature and notation
- Compare ionic versus covalent bonds
- Work with Avogadro's number
- Give examples of molar mass
- Calculate percent composition and empirical formulas
Reinforce your understanding of the material by reading the lesson transcripts. They'll present you with written overviews of the videos and give you a way to study the key vocabulary. The quizzes provide you with a way to test your understanding of the lessons and find topics you don't understand. Video tags allow you to study specific parts of the lessons while skipping over the topics you already know well.
1. What is a Chemical Formula? - Definition, Types & Examples
Chemical formulas provide a lot of information about chemical substances, such as how many and what atoms they are made of, as well as the way the atoms are arranged. In this lesson, we'll discuss the different types of chemical formulas.
2. Chemical Nomenclature & Notation
Subscripts, superscripts, symbols and coefficients can make your head spin. This lesson will straighten everything out for you so you can be proficient in the world of chemistry.
3. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
4. Chemical Bonds: Ionic vs. Covalent
Atoms make up everything on Earth, and chemical bonds are what hold those atoms together. In this lesson, we'll discuss two very important types of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic.
5. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
6. What is Molar Mass? - Definition, Formula & Examples
Compounds have mass, and this is what we call the molar mass. In this lesson, we will discuss the molar mass and go over examples on how to calculate it.
7. Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas
Learn the difference between the empirical formula and chemical formula. Learn how to calculate the percent composition of an element in a compound. Learn how, if given a percent composition, to determine the empirical formula for a compound.
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Other chapters within the Praxis General Science (5435): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis General Science: Methodology, Techniques & History
- Praxis General Science: Matter
- Praxis General Science: Thermodynamics
- Praxis General Science: Periodicity
- Praxis General Science: States of Matter
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Reactions
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