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Ch 9: Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure

About This Chapter

Watch these lessons to improve your knowledge of different types of compounds and bonds. You can also review what you know about the forces that form them and prepare for related questions on the Praxis General Science exam.

Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure - Chapter Summary

This chapter is composed of a series of short lessons that are taught by our expert instructors. They'll help you improve your understanding of chemical bonds and the compounds they make. These lessons will also help you review the theories that explain the functions of these bonds, and learn more about the diagrams used to represent their structures. Following your exploration of these lessons, you should be ready for exam questions about:

  • Lewis structures of atoms, Lewis dot structures and the octet rule
  • Ions and ionic compounds
  • Covalent bonds and covalent compounds
  • Theories of molecular shape
  • Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces
  • London dispersion forces
  • Orbital hybridization and the molecular orbital theory
  • Metallic bonding, intramolecular bonding and the properties of metals
  • Organic molecules and functional groups

Reinforce your understanding of the material by reading the lesson transcripts. They'll present you with written overviews of the videos and give you a way to study the key vocabulary of the chapter. The lesson quizzes have been put into this chapter to provide you with a way to test your understanding of the lessons and find topics you don't understand. Video tags allow you to study specific parts of the lessons while skipping over the topics you already know well.

16 Lessons in Chapter 9: Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms

1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms

Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.

Lewis Dot Structures

2. Lewis Dot Structures

Although drawing dots around elements sounds pretty straight forward, Lewis dots are a little more complicated. This lesson will explain how to draw Lewis dots for single, double, and triple bonds, as well as polyatomic ions.

Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions

3. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions

Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.

What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions

4. What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions

Ionic compounds are a common, yet special type of chemical compound. In this video lesson, you will learn about their formation and structure and see examples of compounds formed by ions.

Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds

5. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds

In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.

Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation

6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation

Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.

Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character

7. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character

Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.

VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes

8. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes

In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.

Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces

9. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces

Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.

London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces

10. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces

Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.

Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape

11. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape

You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.

Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams

12. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams

Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.

Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors

13. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors

Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.

Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules

14. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules

Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.

Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers

15. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers

Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.

Functional Groups in Organic Molecules

16. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules

Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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