About This Chapter
Praxis General Science: Bonding & Structure - Chapter Summary
This chapter is composed of a series of short lessons that are taught by our expert instructors. They'll help you improve your understanding of chemical bonds and the compounds they make. These lessons will also help you review the theories that explain the functions of these bonds, and learn more about the diagrams used to represent their structures. Following your exploration of these lessons, you should be ready for exam questions about:
- Lewis structures of atoms, Lewis dot structures and the octet rule
- Ions and ionic compounds
- Covalent bonds and covalent compounds
- Theories of molecular shape
- Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces
- London dispersion forces
- Orbital hybridization and the molecular orbital theory
- Metallic bonding, intramolecular bonding and the properties of metals
- Organic molecules and functional groups
Reinforce your understanding of the material by reading the lesson transcripts. They'll present you with written overviews of the videos and give you a way to study the key vocabulary of the chapter. The lesson quizzes have been put into this chapter to provide you with a way to test your understanding of the lessons and find topics you don't understand. Video tags allow you to study specific parts of the lessons while skipping over the topics you already know well.
1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
2. Lewis Dot Structures
Although drawing dots around elements sounds pretty straight forward, Lewis dots are a little more complicated. This lesson will explain how to draw Lewis dots for single, double, and triple bonds, as well as polyatomic ions.
3. Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions
Learn how ions are formed using the octet rule. Use the periodic table to predict the charge an atom will have when it becomes an ion. Learn whether an ion is a cation or anion and how to write the formula depending on what charge the ion has.
4. What Are Ionic Compounds? - Definition, Examples & Reactions
Ionic compounds are a common, yet special type of chemical compound. In this video lesson, you will learn about their formation and structure and see examples of compounds formed by ions.
5. Writing Ionic Compound Formulas: Binary & Polyatomic Compounds
In this lesson, you will learn how to write the chemical formulas for both binary ionic compounds and polyatomic ionic compounds when you are given only the name of the compound. You will see that it is actually quite simple when you learn the steps described in this lesson.
6. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
7. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
8. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
9. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
10. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
11. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
12. Molecular Orbital Theory: Tutorial and Diagrams
Learn how to sketch the overlap of orbitals to form sigma and pi bonds. Use the molecular orbital theory to determine bond order. Discover how bond order affects bond strength and bond energy.
13. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
14. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
15. Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers
Learn more about carbon and hydrogen and see how these atoms come together to form distinct molecules. Also, study the difference between saturated and unsaturated molecules.
16. Functional Groups in Organic Molecules
Learn what an organic compound is and how their functional groups affect them. Identify the different types of functional groups including alcohols, alkyl halides, ketones, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids and esters.
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Other chapters within the Praxis General Science (5435): Practice & Study Guide course
- Praxis General Science: Methodology, Techniques & History
- Praxis General Science: Matter
- Praxis General Science: Energy
- Praxis General Science: Atomic Structure
- Praxis General Science: Radioactivity
- Praxis General Science: Thermodynamics
- Praxis General Science: Periodicity
- Praxis General Science: Gases
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Reactions
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Kinetics
- Praxis General Science: Chemical Reaction Equilibrium
- Praxis General Science: Oxidation Reduction
- Praxis General Science: Acid-Base Chemistry
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- Praxis General Science: Prokaryotic Cells
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- Praxis General Science: Theory & Key Mechanisms of Evolution
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- Praxis General Science: Human Body Systems
- Praxis General Science: Human Reproductive Systems & Development
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- Praxis General Science: Minerals & Rocks
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- Praxis General Science: Changing Earth's Surfaces
- Praxis General Science: Historical Geology
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