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Ch 31: Praxis General Science: The Transcription & Translation Process

About This Chapter

These lessons cover the processes of protein synthesis and the different structures involved in completing them. Use them as you study for the Praxis General Science exam and prepare to answer questions about the structures and functions of cells.

Praxis General Science: The Transcription & Translation Process - Chapter Summary

While exploring this chapter's lessons in preparation for the Praxis General Science exam, you will review the processes of transcription and translation in cellular protein synthesis. Follow along with our professional instructors as they explain the stages and structures involved in protein synthesis. Upon completion, you could have a better understanding of the:

  • Central dogma and cellular protein synthesis
  • Processes of the transcription of mRNA from DNA
  • Transcriptional repression and induction, and the regulation of gene expression
  • Operon controls of transcription in prokaryotic cells
  • Intron splicing and RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
  • Genetic code
  • Purpose of ribosomes and peptide bonds in genetic translation
  • Steps involved in the translation of mRNA to proteins

Don't limit your studies to your time at a computer. Watch these lessons on any of your Internet-ready mobile devices when you are away from the desk. In addition, you can read the transcripts to reinforce your knowledge of the material. Test your understanding of the topics covered in these lessons by taking the brief multiple-choice quizzes.

8 Lessons in Chapter 31: Praxis General Science: The Transcription & Translation Process
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

Overview of the Genetic Code

6. Overview of the Genetic Code

Ever wonder how so much genetic material can exist in every cell? In this lesson, we take a look at how the genetic code works, specifically with how codons signal for amino acids.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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