# Ch 43: Praxis Middle School Math: Probability

### About This Chapter

## Praxis Middle School Math: Probability - Chapter Summary

Complete the lessons in this chapter to improve your understanding of probability and the distributions of data sets. These lessons are taught by our expert instructors, who will not only explain the topics of each lesson with examples, but will also be available to answer any questions you may send through the teacher tabs of the lessons. Following theses lessons you should be prepared to answer questions on the Praxis Middle School Mathematics exam involving:

- Conditional probability and calculations for conditional probability
- Permutations and calculating outcomes
- Probability of independent and dependent events
- Probabilities of overlapping and non-overlapping events
- Relationships between conditional probability and independent probability
- Maximums, minimums, outliers and standard deviations of data sets
- Interquartile range and percentiles
- Visual representations of data sets

Improve your understanding of the material presented in these lessons by reading the lesson transcripts. After each lesson, take the lesson's quiz to see what topics from the lessons you don't fully understand. To improve your understanding of these topics, use the video tags to return to and review the parts of the lessons that discussed them.

### 1. Conditional Probability: Definition & Uses

We know a coin can land on either heads or tails. But what would happen if one coin flip changed the next? In this lesson, we'll look at events that are dependent on each other, and we'll learn how to calculate the probability of two events occurring in a combined manner.

### 2. How to Calculate Simple Conditional Probabilities

Conditional probability, just like it sounds, is a probability that happens on the condition of a previous event occurring. To calculate conditional probabilities, we must first consider the effects of the previous event on the current event.

### 3. How to Calculate a Permutation

A permutation is a method used to calculate the total outcomes of a situation where order is important. In this lesson, John will use permutations to help him organize the cards in his poker hand and order a pizza.

### 4. How to Calculate the Probability of Combinations

To calculate the probability of a combination, you will need to consider the number of favorable outcomes over the number of total outcomes. Combinations are used to calculate events where order does not matter. In this lesson, we will explore the connection between these two essential topics.

### 5. Probability of Independent and Dependent Events

Sometimes probabilities need to be calculated when more than one event occurs. These types of compound events are called independent and dependent events. Through this lesson, we will look at some real-world examples of how to calculate these probabilities.

### 6. Either/Or Probability: Overlapping and Non-Overlapping Events

Statistics is the study and interpretation of a set of data. One area of statistics is the study of probability. This lesson will describe how to determine the either/or probability of overlapping and non-overlapping events.

### 7. Probability of Independent Events: The 'At Least One' Rule

Occasionally when calculating independent events, it is only important that the event happens once. This is referred to as the 'At Least One' Rule. To calculate this type of problem, we will use the process of complementary events to find the probability of our event occurring at least once.

### 8. The Relationship Between Conditional Probabilities & Independence

Conditional and independent probabilities are a basic part of learning statistics. It's important that you can understand the similarities and differences between the two as discussed in this lesson.

### 9. Applying Conditional Probability & Independence to Real Life Situations

It can be really confusing learning how to apply conditional and independent probability to real-life situations. This lesson focuses on several examples and practice problems to help you learn how to find conditional probability.

### 10. Spread in Data Sets: Definition & Example

Identifying the spread in data sets is a very important part of statistics. You can do this several ways, but the most common methods are through range, interquartile range, and variance.

### 11. Maximums, Minimums & Outliers in a Data Set

When analyzing data sets, the first thing to identify is the maximums, minimums, and outliers. This lesson will help you learn how to identify these important items.

### 12. Quartiles & the Interquartile Range: Definition, Formulate & Examples

Quartiles and the interquartile range can be used to group and analyze data sets. In this lesson, learn the definition and steps for finding the quartiles and interquartile range for a given data set.

### 13. Finding Percentiles in a Data Set: Formula & Examples

Percentiles are often used in academics to compare student scores. Finding percentiles in a data set can be a useful way to organize and compare numbers in a data set.

### 14. Calculating the Standard Deviation

In this lesson, we will examine the meaning and process of calculating the standard deviation of a data set. Standard deviation can help to determine if the data set is a normal distribution.

### 15. Visual Representations of a Data Set: Shape, Symmetry & Skewness

Visual representations are a fantastic way of understanding and analyzing your data. Use this lesson to understand the characteristics of visual representations of data.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Praxis Middle School Mathematics (5169): Practice & Study Guide course

- Praxis Middle School Math: Number Basics
- Praxis Middle School Math: Rational Numbers
- Praxis Middle School Math: Properties of Numbers
- Praxis Middle School Math: Number Structure
- Praxis Middle School Math: Absolute Value
- Praxis Middle School Math: Equality
- Praxis Middle School Math: Arithmetic Operations
- Praxis Middle School Math: Introduction to Fractions
- Praxis Middle School Math: Operations with Fractions
- Praxis Middle School Math: Decimals
- Praxis Middle School Math: Percents
- Praxis Middle School Math: Ratios & Rate of Change
- Praxis Middle School Math: Proportional Relationships
- Praxis Middle School Math: Estimation
- Praxis Middle School Math: Scientific Notation & Exponents
- Praxis Middle School Math: Square Roots
- Praxis Middle School Math: Roots & Radicals
- Praxis Middle School Math: Algebra Basics
- Praxis Middle School Math: Principles of Algebra
- Praxis Middle School Math: Solving Word Problems
- Praxis Middle School Math: Functions
- Praxis Middle School Math: Linear Equations
- Praxis Middle School Math: Solving Linear Equations
- Praxis Middle School Math: Patterns in Math
- Praxis Middle School Math: Graphing Functions
- Praxis Middle School Math: Polynomials
- Praxis Middle School Math: Quadratic Equations
- Praxis Middle School Math: Systems of Equations
- Praxis Middle School Math: Area, Perimeter & Volume
- Praxis Middle School Math: Properties & Theorems
- Praxis Middle School Math: Parallel, Perpendicular & Intersecting Lines
- Praxis Middle School Math: Properties of Triangles
- Praxis Middle School Math: Similarity & Congruence
- Praxis Middle School Math: Quadrilaterals
- Praxis Middle School Math: Polygons
- Praxis Middle School Math: Circles
- Praxis Middle School Math: Coordinate Geometry
- Praxis Middle School Math: Measurement
- Praxis Middle School Math: Geometric Construction
- Praxis Middle School Math: Data
- Praxis Middle School Math: Line Graphs
- Praxis Middle School Math: Data Presentation
- Praxis Middle School Math: Logic
- Praxis Middle School Math: Modeling
- Praxis Middle School Mathematics Flashcards