About This Chapter
Praxis Middle School Science: Scientific Methodology - Chapter Summary
Subject-matter experts lead you through each lesson to help you review and master topics related to scientific methodology. The videos are short and pinpoint just what concepts will be on the exam, such as the process used for preserving and staining specimens. After completing the chapter, you'll be able to:
- Understand scientific research, the scientific method, and true experimental design
- Interpret tables, graphs, and charts with scientific data
- Explain validity and reliability in research studies
- Identify laboratory equipment, safety techniques, and safety equipment
- Utilize proper techniques for handling laboratory solutions, chemicals, and biological materials
- Describe laboratory measurements, the metric system, significant figures and scientific notation
- Explore descriptive and inferential statistics and measures of central tendency
- Summarize the principals, themes and relationships of the branches of science
Multiple-choice quizzes follow each of the lessons, so be sure to take advantage of this opportunity to test your knowledge and gain experience answering exam-type questions.
1. What is Scientific Research?
This lesson will discuss important components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, statistical significance, and more!
2. Unifying Themes, Principles & Relationships in Science
Learn the true definition of science and explore the main themes and principles to understand how science helps us find relationships in the natural world. Take a quiz to test what you know.
3. Principles Unifying the Branches of Science
Scientists of different disciplines look to compete with one another. But they have more in common than you might think. Learn about the basic principles that all scientists share, and why they're important.
4. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples
The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.
5. True Experimental Design
Experiments are the classic way to conduct research in almost any field of study. But do you know how true experiments really work? This lesson explains the details of experimental design, such as different types of samples, control groups and independent vs. dependent variables.
6. How to Interpret Tables, Graphs & Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems
In this lesson, we will look at some practice problems involving tables, graph, and charts. We will specifically look at x- and y-axis graphs, pie charts, and bar graphs.
7. Descriptive & Inferential Statistics: Definition, Differences & Examples
Descriptive and inferential statistics each give different insights into the nature of the data gathered. One alone cannot give the whole picture. Together, they provide a powerful tool for both description and prediction.
8. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation
Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.
9. The Metric System: Units and Conversion
Just like you and your friend communicate using the same language, scientists all over the world need to use the same language when reporting the measurements they make. This language is called the metric system. In this lesson we will cover the metric units for length, mass, volume, density and temperature, and also discuss how to convert among them.
10. Measures of Central Tendency: Definitions & Practice
After watching this video, you will be able to explain the meaning of the terms central tendency, mode, mean and median. You will also be able to calculate these three values from provided data. A short quiz will follow.
11. Validity and Reliability: How to Assess the Quality of a Research Study
Many psychologists and teachers complete research studies. How can you tell if a study was done well? This lesson will cover many criteria for a good quality study, including types of reliability and validity.
12. Common Laboratory Equipment: Types & Uses
Biologists use all kinds of equipment in their labs to run their experiments. In this lesson, you'll identify some of the most common pieces of equipment as well as when you should or shouldn't use them.
13. Laboratory Safety Techniques: Protecting People and Equipment
Laboratory safety is not fun, but following the rules ensures that lab activities can be enjoyed by everyone. In this lesson, we cover some basic lab safety rules to follow that will help lab time be both safe and fun.
14. Standard Laboratory Safety Equipment
Even with proper precautions, lab accidents do happen. When they do, knowing what safety equipment is in your lab, where it is located, and how to use it can prevent further harm to both the lab and the people working in it.
15. Handling Laboratory Solutions, Chemicals & Biological Materials
Working in a laboratory requires careful attention, both for safety and successful completion of tasks. Learn about the many ways biological and chemical substances need to be properly prepared, identified, stored, dispensed, and disposed of.
16. How to Preserve, Stain & Mount Microscope Specimens
Microscopes are incredible tools for observing the tiniest of organisms. Here we will identify the types of slides that can be made and describe how to best preserve, stain, and mount specimens. At the end, you can test yourself with a brief quiz.
17. Understanding Laboratory Measurements: Units & Types
There are many different units that can be used for measurements. This may not only lead to incorrect data measurements, but also to confusion about which units are most appropriate. Therefore, a standard set of units is used for each type of measurement in the biology lab.
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