About This Chapter
Praxis Middle School Science: Scientific Methodology - Chapter Summary
Subject-matter experts lead you through each lesson to help you review and master all of the topics under scientific methodology. The videos are short and pinpoint just what concepts will be on the exam, including:
- The historical development of science
- Scientific research and the scientific method
- Qualitative and quantitative data in experimental, observational, and modeling methods of research
- Ways to interpret tables, graphs, and charts with scientific data
- Validity, reliability, and scientific ethics
- Laboratory equipment, safety techniques, and safety equipment
- Proper techniques for handling laboratory solutions, chemicals, and biological materials
- Ways to preserve, stain, and mount microscope specimens
- Laboratory measurements, the metric system, significant figures and scientific notation
- Descriptive and inferential statistics and measures of central tendency
Multiple-choice quizzes follow many of the lessons, so be sure to take advantage of the opportunities to test your knowledge and gain experience answering exam-type questions.
Objectives of the Praxis Middle School Science: Scientific Methodology Chapter
The Praxis assesses your understanding of scientific subjects that you will teach in middle school science classes. The topics covered in this Scientific Methodology chapter are on the Scientific Inquiry, Methodology, Techniques, and History section of the exam. There are 15 total questions in this section and all are multiple-choice.
1. What is Scientific Research?
This lesson will discuss important components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, statistical significance, and more!
2. Principles Unifying the Branches of Science
Scientists of different disciplines look to compete with one another. But they have more in common than you might think. Learn about the basic principles that all scientists share, and why they're important.
3. Unifying Themes, Principles & Relationships in Science
Learn the true definition of science and explore the main themes and principles to understand how science helps us find relationships in the natural world. Take a quiz to test what you know.
4. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples
The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.
5. True Experimental Design
Experiments are the classic way to conduct research in almost any field of study. But do you know how true experiments really work? This lesson explains the details of experimental design, such as different types of samples, control groups and independent vs. dependent variables.
6. How to Interpret Tables, Graphs & Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems
In this lesson, we will look at some practice problems involving tables, graph, and charts. We will specifically look at x- and y-axis graphs, pie charts, and bar graphs.
7. Descriptive & Inferential Statistics: Definition, Differences & Examples
Descriptive and inferential statistics each give different insights into the nature of the data gathered. One alone cannot give the whole picture. Together, they provide a powerful tool for both description and prediction.
8. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation
Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.
9. The Metric System: Units and Conversion
Just like you and your friend communicate using the same language, scientists all over the world need to use the same language when reporting the measurements they make. This language is called the metric system. In this lesson we will cover the metric units for length, mass, volume, density and temperature, and also discuss how to convert among them.
10. Measures of Central Tendency: Definitions & Practice
After watching this video, you will be able to explain the meaning of the terms central tendency, mode, mean and median. You will also be able to calculate these three values from provided data. A short quiz will follow.
11. Validity and Reliability: How to Assess the Quality of a Research Study
Many psychologists and teachers complete research studies. How can you tell if a study was done well? This lesson will cover many criteria for a good quality study, including types of reliability and validity.
12. Common Laboratory Equipment: Types & Uses
Biologists use all kinds of equipment in their labs to run their experiments. In this lesson, you'll identify some of the most common pieces of equipment as well as when you should or shouldn't use them.
13. Laboratory Safety Techniques: Protecting People and Equipment
Laboratory safety is not fun, but following the rules ensures that lab activities can be enjoyed by everyone. In this lesson, we cover some basic lab safety rules to follow that will help lab time be both safe and fun.
14. Standard Laboratory Safety Equipment
Even with proper precautions, lab accidents do happen. When they do, knowing what safety equipment is in your lab, where it is located, and how to use it can prevent further harm to both the lab and the people working in it.
15. Handling Laboratory Solutions, Chemicals & Biological Materials
Working in a laboratory requires careful attention, both for safety and successful completion of tasks. Learn about the many ways biological and chemical substances need to be properly prepared, identified, stored, dispensed, and disposed of.
16. How to Preserve, Stain & Mount Microscope Specimens
Microscopes are incredible tools for observing the tiniest of organisms. Here we will identify the types of slides that can be made and describe how to best preserve, stain, and mount specimens. At the end, you can test yourself with a brief quiz.
17. Understanding Laboratory Measurements: Units & Types
There are many different units that can be used for measurements. This may not only lead to incorrect data measurements, but also to confusion about which units are most appropriate. Therefore, a standard set of units is used for each type of measurement in the biology lab.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Middle School Science (5440): Practice & Study Guide course
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- Praxis Middle School Science: Energy
- Praxis Middle School Science: Thermodynamics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Atomic Structure
- Praxis Middle School Science: Mechanics in Physics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Newton's Laws of Motion
- Praxis Middle School Science: Oscillations
- Praxis Middle School Science: Laws of Gravitation
- Praxis Middle School Science: Linear Momentum
- Praxis Middle School Science: Work, Energy & Power
- Praxis Middle School Science: Fluid Mechanics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Electrical Forces & Fields
- Praxis Middle School Science: Magnetism & Electricity
- Praxis Middle School Science: Waves & Optics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Periodic Table
- Praxis Middle School Science: Chemical Bonding & Compounds
- Praxis Middle School Science: Gases
- Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry
- Praxis Middle School Science: Chemical Kinetics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Chemical Equilibrium
- Praxis Middle School Science: Oxidation Reduction
- Praxis Middle School Science: Acid-Base Chemistry
- Praxis Middle School Science: Solutions & Solubility
- Praxis Middle School Science: Cell Biology
- Praxis Middle School Science: Prokaryotic Cells
- Praxis Middle School Science: Protists, Fungi & Viruses
- Praxis Middle School Science: Biochemistry
- Praxis Middle School Science: Basic Genetics
- Praxis Middle School Science: Cell Reproduction & Division
- Praxis Middle School Science: Transcription & Translation Process
- Praxis Middle School Science: DNA Replication
- Praxis Middle School Science: Evolution
- Praxis Middle School Science: Biological Classification
- Praxis Middle School Science: Plant Cells
- Praxis Middle School Science: Plant Structures & Functions
- Praxis Middle School Science: Homeostasis of Organisms
- Praxis Middle School Science: Human Body Systems
- Praxis Middle School Science: Human Reproduction & Development
- Praxis Middle School Science: Key Aspects of Ecology
- Praxis Middle School Science: Biodiversity
- Praxis Middle School Science: Minerals & Rocks
- Praxis Middle School Science: Changes to Earth's Surfaces
- Praxis Middle School Science: Earth's Structure
- Praxis Middle School Science: Historical Geology
- Praxis Middle School Science: Bodies of Water
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- Understanding Climate Change
- The Earth, Moon & Sun
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- Praxis Middle School Science Flashcards