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Ch 4: Pre-20th Century Physicists

About This Chapter

Review the short lessons in the Pre-20th Century Physicists chapter of this Significant Physicists Study Guide course to boost your knowledge of physicists who made an impact before the 1900s. Mini quizzes can check your comprehension of these physicists as you aim to excel on an assignment or test.

Who's It For?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering information about pre-20th century physicists will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about physicists who made contributions to the field before the 20th century. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who want to learn a broad topic in a short amount of time
  • Students who are looking for easy ways to identify the most important information on the topic
  • Students who have fallen behind in memorizing theories, inventions and contributions of physicists like James Clerk Maxwell, Benjamin Thompson and Ludwig Boltzmann
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who have limited time to study for an upcoming exam

How It Works:

  • Complete each lesson in the chapter to review all key topics.
  • Refer to the lesson to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with a short quiz.
  • Complete your review with the Pre-20th Century Physicists chapter exam.

Why It Works:

  • Study Efficiently: The lessons in this chapter cover only information you need to know.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging instruction and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Take the Pre-20th Century Physicists chapter exam to make sure you're prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any science question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: View lessons on any web-ready device.

Students Will Review:

This chapter summarizes the material students need to know about pre-20th century physicists for a standard science course. Topics covered include:

  • Biography, inventions and experiment of Heinrich Hertz
  • Max Planck's biography, quotes, atomic theory and discovery of light
  • Inventions, contributions and biographies of Joseph Henry and Georg Ohm
  • Theories and biographies of Leon Foucault and Ludwig Boltzmann
  • Ernst Mach's principle, and biography
  • Contributions, inventions and biography of Gustav Kirchoff
  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes' contributions and discovery of superconductivity
  • Biographies, inventions and discoveries of James Clerk Maxwell and James Prescott Joule
  • Kristian Birkeland's biography, terrella experiment and explanation of the aurora borealis
  • Jagadish Chandra Bose and Wilhelm Roentgen's biographies and contributions
  • Amedeo Avogadro's quotes, law and contribution to chemistry
  • Discoveries, inventions, facts, quotes and biography of Andre Marie Ampere
  • Accomplishments, inventions and discoveries of Evangelista Torricelli
  • Benjamin Thompson's biography and inventions

22 Lessons in Chapter 4: Pre-20th Century Physicists
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Heinrich Hertz: Biography, Inventions & Experiment

1. Heinrich Hertz: Biography, Inventions & Experiment

This lesson will introduce the reader to the physicist Heinrich, exploring his personal life, his career, and his work on electromagnetic radiation that contributed so much to the field of physics.

Max Planck: Biography, Facts & Quotes

2. Max Planck: Biography, Facts & Quotes

In the early 1900's, a German scientist named Max Planck made one of the most important discoveries in physics and founded a whole new field of science called quantum mechanics. In this lesson, learn more about Planck and his remarkable life.

Max Planck: Atomic Theory & Discovery of Light

3. Max Planck: Atomic Theory & Discovery of Light

In 1900, a scientist named Max Planck made a discovery that would change science forever and have a profound impact on our understanding of both light and atomic structure. In this lesson, learn more about Planck's amazing discovery!

Joseph Henry: Biography, Inventions & Contribution

4. Joseph Henry: Biography, Inventions & Contribution

Joseph Henry was one of Americas most regarded and celebrated scientists. We are going to look at his life as well as the discoveries, inventions and contributions that he made to earn such respect.

Georg Ohm: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

5. Georg Ohm: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

The scientist and mathematician Georg Ohm played a critical role in helping us to understand how electric circuits work. In this lesson, learn more about this important man and his discoveries!

Leon Foucault: Biography, Inventions & Theory

6. Leon Foucault: Biography, Inventions & Theory

This lesson will introduce the reader to the physicist Leon Foucault, exploring his personal life and career, and focusing on the research, inventions, and scientific contributions that contributed so much to the field of physics.

Ludwig Boltzmann: Biography, Theory & Contributions

7. Ludwig Boltzmann: Biography, Theory & Contributions

This lesson will introduce the reader to the physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, exploring his personal life, his career, and his work on statistical mechanics and thermodynamics that contributed so much to the field of physics.

Ernst Mach: Biography, Facts & Principle

8. Ernst Mach: Biography, Facts & Principle

This lesson will introduce the reader to the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. We'll explore his personal life, career, research, theories, and scientific contributions to the field of physics and philosophy.

Gustav Kirchhoff: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

9. Gustav Kirchhoff: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

Gustav Kirchhoff was a famous German physicist who made many contributions to science, including furthering our understanding of electric circuits and developing the new science of spectroscopy. In this lesson, we will learn about his life and the amazing work that he did!

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Super Conductivity & Contributions

10. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Super Conductivity & Contributions

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch scientist who made one of the biggest discoveries in twentieth-century physics. In this lesson, learn about him and how he was able to discover the amazing phenomenon of superconductivity.

James Clerk Maxwell: Biography, Inventions & Discoveries

11. James Clerk Maxwell: Biography, Inventions & Discoveries

This lesson will introduce you to the physicist James Clerk Maxwell. We'll explore his personal life, his career, and his influential work on electromagnetic radiation.

James Prescott Joule: Biography, Inventions & Discoveries

12. James Prescott Joule: Biography, Inventions & Discoveries

This lesson details the life of James Prescott Joule and highlights his significant contributions to the area of thermodynamics and heat and energy transfer.

Kristian Birkeland: Biography & Terrella Experiment

13. Kristian Birkeland: Biography & Terrella Experiment

In this lesson, we focus on the life of Kristian Birkeland. This Norwegian scientist performed several experiments that helped to shape our current understanding of aurora and how particles from space interact with the Earth.

Kristian Birkeland & the Aurora Borealis

14. Kristian Birkeland & the Aurora Borealis

In the early 1900's, a Norwegian scientist named Kristian Birkeland became the first person to explain what was causing the Aurora Borealis to light up the skies over Norway and other regions near the North pole. In this lesson, learn more about him and his discovery!

Jagadish Chandra Bose: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

15. Jagadish Chandra Bose: Biography, Inventions & Contributions

Jagadish Chandra Bose was one of the most prolific and successful Indian scientists of all time. In this lesson, learn about his contributions to the fields of radio science and biophysics.

Wilhelm Roentgen: Biography, Contribution & Facts

16. Wilhelm Roentgen: Biography, Contribution & Facts

Wilhelm Roentgen, who is most famous for the discovery of x-rays, also made many other contributions to science. In this lesson, learn about his life and about his work as a scientist.

Amedeo Avogadro: Biography, Facts & Quotes

17. Amedeo Avogadro: Biography, Facts & Quotes

Amedeo Avogadro was born to an aristocratic family in Italy, but decided to study science. In this lesson, we'll learn who Amedeo Avogadro is, what work he did in the field of chemistry, and why his work took so long to be recognized.

Amedeo Avogadro's Law & Contribution to Chemistry

18. Amedeo Avogadro's Law & Contribution to Chemistry

Avogadro's Law is one of the most important laws to gas chemistry, but it wasn't always viewed this way. In this lesson we will learn how Amedeo Avogadro came up with this law and how it is used today.

Andre Marie Ampere: Biography, Facts & Quotes

19. Andre Marie Ampere: Biography, Facts & Quotes

Andre Marie Ampere was a great French physicist. His father instilled a great love of learning in him, but he never received a formal education. We will learn about his life in this lesson.

Andre Marie Ampere: Inventions & Discoveries

20. Andre Marie Ampere: Inventions & Discoveries

So many scientists help us to understand so many things about our world. We are going to discuss and learn more about Andre Marie Ampere and his contributions and discoveries in science.

Evangelista Torricelli: Discoveries, Inventions & Accomplishments

21. Evangelista Torricelli: Discoveries, Inventions & Accomplishments

Though he lived a short life, Evangelista Torricelli left a lasting impact on the world. In this lesson we'll take a look at some of his accomplishments, inventions, and contributions, as well as learn about his life in general.

Benjamin Thompson: Biography & Inventions

22. Benjamin Thompson: Biography & Inventions

Benjamin Thompson was a British scientist who was born in America before the Revolutionary War. This lesson will explore his insights with thermodynamics and his inventions.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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