About This Chapter
Prejudice, Stereotyping & Discrimination - Chapter Summary
What causes prejudice? It seems like a simple question, but this is actually a complex subject rooted in social psychology. This chapter takes an in-depth look at how and why we discriminate against certain groups, and how these prejudices can influence and perpetuate stereotypes. Through fast and fun video and text lessons, this chapter introduces you to related theories, famous psychological experiments, definitions and real-world examples. It also contains lesson quizzes to put that knowledge to work. Since this chapter is totally online, the materials here are accessible any time of the day or night, from any mobile device or computer. After completing this chapter, you should be be able to:
- Identify theoretical causes of prejudicial behavior
- Define the realistic conflict theory and explain how it relates to prejudice
- Compare and contrast ingroups and outgroups
- Analyze different psychological roots of stereotypes, such as attributions and information processing
- Discuss various perceptions of inequality and how they relate to the concept of risk adversity
- Differentiate the concepts of sex and gender, while recognizing other sexual identities and orientations
- Define patriarchy and matriarchy, as related to different forms of sexism
- Map the evolution of gender stereotypes
- Define and confront racial discrimination, including its history in the United States
- Explain the contact hypothesis for reducing prejudice
- Evaluate other theories and psychological techniques for reducing prejudice
1. Prejudice, Discrimination & Stereotypes: Definitions & Examples
There are many different types of people in the world. What happens when one person thinks or feels a certain way about an entire group of people? Watch this lesson to find out about stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.
2. Prejudice: Theories and Ideas on Origins
Why do some people dislike entire groups of people? What causes prejudice? In this lesson, we'll look at some of the theories about what makes people prejudiced, including scapegoat theory, authoritarian personality, and culture theory.
3. Realistic Conflict Theory and Discrimination: Definition & Examples
Why are people prejudiced against others? Under what circumstances are people most prejudiced? In this lesson, we will explore the realistic conflict theory of prejudice, which offers possible answers for why prejudice happens and when prejudice is highest.
4. Ingroup vs. Outgroup: Definition and Explanation
How do the groups we belong to influence the stereotypes we hold? In this lesson, we'll examine ingroups and outgroups and their effects on stereotypes.
5. Group Prejudice: Jane Elliott's Brown Eyes vs. Blue Eyes Experiment
Jane Elliott is an educator whose famous blue eyes/brown eyes exercise showed social psychologists (and her students) the impact that racism has on education and how social psychology can be applied to real-world situations. In this lesson, we'll learn about the exercise and its impact on social psychology.
6. Stereotypes and Automatic & Controlled Information Processing
People process information in many different ways. In this lesson, we'll explore two ways of processing information, automatic and controlled, and how they relate to stereotypes and prejudice.
7. How Self-Serving Attributions Maintain Stereotypes & Prejudice
Attributions are the reasons that we give for why a particular outcome occurred. What do they have to do with stereotypes and prejudice? This lesson answers that question, as well as explains different types of attributions.
8. Perceptions of Inequality: Examples & Impact
Equality of access to the resources required to create a healthy, fulfilled, and happy life has declined in the US over the past two decades. However, perceptions of inequality are not an exact match to actual levels of inequality. Risk aversion increases in groups that experience discrimination and inequality. Tools to improve disadvantaged groups' access to advancement are discussed, as are the reasons for the mismatch between reality and perception.
9. Sex and Gender in Society: Differences, Preferences & Characteristics
You might think you know everything about the differences between boys and girls, but this lesson covers less commonly understood topics. After defining sex vs. gender, it covers less common sexual identities, such as intersexed and transgender individuals. In addition, theories on sexual orientation are covered, including both categorical and continuum perspectives of sexual interest.
10. Sexism and Patriarchy: Definitions and Forms
This lesson provides a foundation for understanding sexism in various forms. First, patriarchy versus matriarchy is defined. Then, several different forms of sexism are outlined, including old-fashioned, modern, hostile, benevolent and ambivalent.
11. Gender Changes Over Time: Agency and Communion
Gender stereotypes often rely on the ways people define themselves. In this lesson, we'll look at two ways of defining oneself. We'll also study why gender differences exist and how they change over time.
12. Racial Discrimination: Definition & Examples
Racial discrimination has been practiced for centuries and has had a profoundly negative impact on the lives of many people. In this video, you'll learn how to define racial discrimination and explore some examples of how it's been used in society.
13. Causes of Racial Discrimination in America
For centuries, racial discrimination has been a complex and confusing problem in the United States. Through this lesson, you'll learn how to define racial discrimination and explore by way of examples some of its more common causes.
14. Contact Hypothesis: Definition, Limitations & Criteria for Successful Contact
For many years, social psychologists have studied ways to reduce prejudice. In this lesson, we will review the contact hypothesis on how to reduce prejudice, examine the famous Robbers Cave experiment, and see what types of contact work best in the fight against prejudice.
15. Reducing Prejudice: Techniques in Social Psychology
There are several different categories of social psychology techniques used to reduce prejudice attitudes in individuals and among groups. This lesson will include techniques addressing inter-group familiarity, identity, affect, and thought.
16. Required Assignments Reminder
Sorry for the interruption to your course progress! We wanted to make sure you knew this course has a written assignment requirement in order to be completed. Read on to learn where to find these assignments and how to submit them.
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Other chapters within the Psychology 316: Advanced Social Psychology course
- Themes of Social Psychology
- Social Cognition, Perception & Nonverbal Communication
- Attitudes, Persuasion & Behavior
- Self-Perception & Identity
- The Psychology of Interpersonal Relationships
- Conformity, Compliance & Obedience
- Altruism & Prosocial Behavior
- Aggression in Social Psychology
- Social Psychology & the Online World
- Required Assignments for Psychology 316