About This Chapter
Prenatal and Neonatal Development - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
From fertilization to delivery, discover the growth and development of human life. Learn about conception at the cellular level, then watch how the human body changes and develops to protect and nurture the growing fetus until delivery. Watch the instructor-led videos then take the quizzes to see what you have learned. If you have questions along the way, our subject experts are there to help! After you have completed this chapter, you should be able to:
- Define and explain fertilization
- Identify maternal and embryonic anatomy
- Describe fetal development during each of the trimesters
- Outline the stages of labor
- Explain possible complications of birth: miscarriage, abnormal presentations and premature birth
- Describe the first month of life
|Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes||Outline the fertilization process and the cells involved.|
|Fertilization: Oocyte Activation and Cell Cleavage||Define the exact moment of fertilization and the process of cell cleavage.|
|Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula||Understand the processes that occur during early mammalian embryonic development.|
|Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation||Explore the journey of the embryo after fertilization and learn about blood flow and placental development.|
|The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function||Learn the importance of the placenta to fetal health and nourishment.|
|Amniotic Fluid, the Amnion and the Yolk Sac||Understand embryonic support systems in both egg-laying vertebrates and placental mammals.|
|Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm and Mesoderm)||Explore the process of gastrulation as an embryo begins the transformation from a ball of cells to a fully functioning being.|
|Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages and Timeline||Learn how organs and systems begin to develop as an embryo becomes a fetus.|
|Second Trimester Fetal Development||See the development that occurs by the end of the second trimester.|
|Third Trimester Fetal Development||Learn how fetuses grow and prepare for birth.|
|External Genital Development in Males and Females||Discover how hormones are responsible for the formation of female and male genitals - even though both come from identical tissue.|
|Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery||Understand the role of hormones as communication between fetus and mother to initiate and control labor.|
|The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion and Placental||Describe the stages of labor and the events during each.|
|Fetal Dystocia: Normal and Abnormal Fetal Positions Prior to Childbirth||Outline the normal and abnormal fetal presentations prior to delivery.|
|What is a C-Section? - Procedure, Types and Delivery||Identify situations that would warrant C-section delivery, explain the two types of procedures and the risks involved.|
|Multiple Births: Symptoms, Difficulties and Types||Understand how multiple births occur, the statistics associated with multiple births and the possible risks to both the fetuses and the mother.|
|Premature Births and Associated Complications||Compare premature and immature births and the challenges they present.|
|Common Causes of Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion||Identify the symptoms and causes of miscarriage.|
|The Neonatal Period: Lactation and Nursing||Understand the relationship between hormones, lactation and weaning.|
|The Neonatal Period: Changes During the First Month of Life||Discover how a newborn's systems adapt to life outside the womb.|
1. Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes
Follow the male's sperm and the female's egg on their way to meet each other in this lesson that takes you through the process of fertilization in humans. Learn about the obstacles the sperm must get through before it can fertilize the egg.
2. Fertilization: Oocyte Activation & Cell Cleavage
When is the exact moment of fertilization? Learn the answer in this lesson. We'll look at what happens after the sperm penetrates the outer layers of the oocyte during the process of fertilization.
3. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
4. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
5. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
6. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
7. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
8. Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages & Timeline
We all know it takes 9 months for the baby to develop inside the mother's womb, but have you ever thought about how or when all those different organs and systems appear? When does the fetal heart start beating or the brain develop? Find out in this lesson covering the first trimester of pre-natal development.
9. Second Trimester Fetal Development
The growth and development of a baby is an amazingly detailed and complex process. It starts with a ball of cells, which grows all the way to a full grown, eight pound baby in nine months! In this lesson, learn about what happens during the second trimester of pregnancy.
10. Third Trimester Fetal Development
This is it - the last step, the last few months before the birth of a baby! Learn about the changes the developing fetus goes through during the third and final trimester.
11. External Genital Development in Males and Females
The developed genitals of a male look much different than the developed genitals of a female. However, they both grow from identical sets of tissues. Learn more about external genital development and find out how and when the tissue changes.
12. Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery
How does a mother's body know when it is time to give birth? How does the labor process begin and end? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson on the hormones involved in childbirth.
13. The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion & Placental
You may think of the process of labor and childbirth as one long event, but it is actually divided into different stages. Learn about each of the three stages of labor in this lesson.
14. Fetal Dystocia: Normal and Abnormal Fetal Positions Prior to Childbirth
While the majority of births proceed without too many complications, occasionally some births don't go quite as planned. Learn about some of the more common types of complications in this lesson on difficult births and fetal dystocia.
15. What is a C-Section? - Procedure, Types & Delivery
Do you know what happens when something goes wrong during the birthing process? You may have heard about C-sections, but do you know why they are performed - or how? Learn about this and more in this lesson on Cesarean sections.
16. Multiple Births: Symptoms, Difficulties & Types
While the thought of twins or triplets may be exciting or intriguing, have you ever considered the difficulties that are involved in the birthing of multiple babies? Learn about the different types of twins and some of the complications that come along with being pregnant with twins, triplets, and other sets of multiple births.
17. Premature Births and Associated Complications
What classifies a baby as premature? If they are born premature, how likely is it that they will survive? Learn about this and more in this lesson on the risks and complications of premature birth.
18. Common Causes of Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion
We all know that sometimes pregnancies don't go as planned. Occasionally, for no apparent reason, the developing baby is miscarried. Learn about some of the symptoms and causes of miscarriages in this lesson.
19. The Neonatal Period: Lactation and Nursing
Ever wonder how the mother's body knows when to produce milk for her coming baby? Learn about the hormones and cells involved in milk production and release in this lesson on lactation and nursing.
20. The Neonatal Period: Changes During the First Month of Life
Development of our internal systems doesn't stop with birth. Learn about some of the main changes that occur during a newborn infant's first month of life in this lesson on the neonatal period.
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