About This Chapter
How it works:
- Identify the lessons in Prentice Hall Earth Science Minerals chapter with which you need help.
- Find the corresponding video lessons within this companion course chapter.
- Watch fun videos that cover the minerals topics you need to learn or review.
- Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
- If you need additional help, re-watch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors.
Students will learn:
- The atom
- The relationships between elements, molecules and compounds
- Chemical bonds
- Metallic bonding
- Types and properties of minerals
- Differences between rocks and minerals
- Silicate and non-silicate minerals
- Optical properties of minerals
- Crystal shape of minerals
- Mineral strength
- Mineral density and specific gravity
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1. The Atom
The physical basis that everything is composed of is called matter and the smallest unit of matter is called an atom. Learn about the atom, subatomic particles, the nucleus, elements, and the periodic table.
2. Understanding the Relationships between Elements, Molecules & Compounds
A molecule is formed when two or more atoms from the same element are chemically bonded, whereas a compound is defined as the chemical bonding between atoms of different elements. Learn about the relationship between elements, molecules, and compounds.
3. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
A covalent bond occurs when two atoms share electrons. Learn about chemical bonding, explore how covalent bonds are made, discover valence electrons, and review molecule structure.
4. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Ionic bonds are electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged ions. Learn about chemical bonding and how ionic bonds form, discover the properties of electronegativity, and review examples of elements containing ionic bonds.
5. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Metallic bonding is known as the electron-sea model. Learn about metallic bonding with an explanation of the unique properties of metals, and understand why metals are good electrical conductors.
6. What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples
Minerals are solids that are naturally formed with a unique chemical composition and a crystalline structure. Discover the types, properties, and examples of minerals, as well as the importance of them in this lesson.
7. Rocks and Minerals: Definitions and Differences
Rocks and minerals are natural objects with important uses, which include being used in the materials to produce things like automobiles, jewelry, and asphalt for highways. Learn about rocks and minerals, and explore their definitions and classification differences. Understand the geologic processes that create rocks, as well as the chemical properties of minerals.
8. Silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Most minerals on Earth are classified as silicate minerals with different chemical classifications. Learn to identify examples of silicate minerals, understand their chemical classifications, and discover the importance of the silicon-oxygen tetrahedra.
9. Non-silicate Minerals: Chemical Classifications & Examples
Non-silicate minerals lack silicon but are still an important part of the earth's composition. Learn to differentiate silicate from non-silicate materials and study the chemical classifications of non-silicate minerals through examples such as carbonates, sulfates, and halides.
10. Optical Properties of Minerals: Luster, Light Transmission, Color & Streak
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid with a particular crystalline structure. Explore the optical properties of minerals, including luster, light transmission, color, and streak, and discover why minerals are defined differently by geologists and the mining industry.
11. Crystal Shape of Minerals: Forms and Types
The crystal habit, or the external shape of a crystal, can be used to help identify minerals. Discover the different types of crystals, including euhedral and non-geometric, and their different habit forms.
12. Mineral Strength: Tenacity, Hardness, Cleavage & Fracture
Mineral strength is calculated by measuring tenacity, hardness, cleavage, and fracture. Examine the methods of each of these concepts through examples, and learn about the usage of the Mohs scale to determine the hardness of a mineral, and find examples of brittle, malleable, sectile, and elastic minerals.
13. Mineral Density & Specific Gravity: Definition and Properties
Mineral density, or the mass per volume, and specific gravity, or the ratio of mass to an equal volume of water, are used to identify minerals. Learn more about these properties and discover how to calculate mineral density and specific gravity through water displacement.
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Other chapters within the Prentice Hall Earth Science: Online Textbook Help course
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 3: Rocks
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 4: Earth's Resources
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 5: Weathering, Soil, and Mass Movements
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 6: Running Water and Groundwater
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 7: Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 8: Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 9: Plate Tectonics
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 11: Mountain Building
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 12: Geologic Time
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 13: Earth's History
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 14: The Ocean Floor
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 15: Ocean Water and Ocean Life
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 16: The Dynamic Ocean
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 17: The Atmosphere: Structure and Temperature
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 18: Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 19: Air Pressure and Wind
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 20: Weather Patterns and Severe Storms
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 21: Climate
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 22: Origin of Modern Astronomy
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 23: Touring Our Solar System
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 24: Studying the Sun
- Prentice Hall Earth Science Chapter 25: Beyond Our Solar System