About This Chapter
Standard: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.4)
About This Chapter
After students receive extensive instruction about how to present information, they will have a deeper comprehension of how to organize, research, and draft speeches that persuade or inform audiences. Your students will also gain knowledge in assessing the quality of different types of research. The lessons from this chapter instruct students about the following:
- Persuasive, informative, and special occasion speeches
- Analyzing audiences and using the gathered data
- Audience engagement and adapting to audiences
- Purposes for giving speeches
- Brainstorming and developing central topics and thesis statements
- Creating a sound research strategy
- Finding and choosing primary, secondary, and supporting research
- Building-up and connecting main topics to supporting ideas
- General organization, outlining, and speech preparation tips
- Organizing persuasive and informative speeches
- Speech components
- Transition sentences
- The elements of effective conclusions
You can detect when your students possess a deeper understanding of this standard when they begin to acquire stronger organizational skills because they will start to generate ideas and organize those ideas into developed presentations. Encouraging students to fulfill the standard by reviewing these lessons may further benefit those who are on the debate team or who are involved in student government. Likewise, these lessons may prepare students who wish to continue on to careers that involve significant public speaking or persuasive writing.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Below are some recommendations on activities and assignments you could incorporate into your current curriculum to assist you with fulfilling Common Core standards.
Teach your students about audience analysis by going through the connected lessons. Explain to your students that they must pretend they are a keynote speaker delivering the same speech to multiple audiences. Prepare a short speech or speech excerpt and draft up some fictitious data about audience demographics. Have your students to review the audience demographics and adjust the speech to more accurately fit 2-3 different audiences, creating 2-3 new speeches.
Show your class the lessons about brainstorming topics and creating thesis statements. Tell your students to break up into pairs or small groups then present everyone with a list of highly broad concepts. Have each team/group brainstorm four topics from these broad concepts and then turn those topics into four thesis statements. As an added challenge, two of the topics/thesis statements must be for informative speeches and the other two have to be constructed for persuasive presentations.
Construct Your Pyramid
Make sure your students understand how to conduct research and how to classify the different types of research by having students watch the related video lessons. Next, have students split up into teams for a research-themed competition. Prepare several packets with different types of research for a given topics then have your students read through the research as a team and create a research pyramid with the primary research on the top, secondary research on the second tier, and supporting research on the bottom. Every round is timed and teams are awarded points based on every piece of research they correctly identify.
1. Types of Speeches: Informative, Persuasive, and Special Occasion
There are essentially three types of speeches public speakers use to influence their audience. In this lesson, we'll look at those three types of speeches and how each serves a different purpose.
2. Be an Audience-Centered Speaker: Focusing on Listeners' Needs
The best way a speaker can ensure that his message is communicated effectively is to consider his audience and their biases and beliefs. Getting to know and understand the audience will help to create a speech that carries meaning.
3. Informal and Formal Methods of Audience Analysis
There are three formal concentrations a good public speaker needs to focus on when conducting a formal audience analysis. There are also times when an informal analysis will do. Learn more about both types in this lesson.
4. Gathering Information for Audience Analysis: Research & Observation
An audience analysis is an essential step in writing and presenting a speech that is meaningful to an audience. The speaker will look at several traits, characteristics and conditions of his audience to best suit the speech to their needs.
5. Adapting to Your Audience During and After Your Speech
Preparing for your speech is only one way in which a speaker can ensure audience adaptation. You need a keen eye for non-verbal cues during and after the speech to determine whether your audience is paying attention.
6. Understanding Reasons for a Public Speaking Event
In this lesson, you'll learn how to prepare for a speaking event. Learn how to tailor your speech to be appropriate for the event based on your background, the occasion and the audience.
7. General Purpose vs. Specific Purpose of a Speech
Understanding the general and specific purpose of your speech will help you develop and focus your speech to meet the needs of your delivery and of your audience. This lesson will help you understand the differences and how to create a specific purpose statement.
8. Choosing an Appropriate Speech Topic: Steps & Characteristics
In this lesson, learn tips and tricks for generating ideas for a speech. We'll explore how to select an appropriate topic and the methods of finding a good topic for your speech.
9. Public Speaking with Time Limits: How to Prepare
It can be overwhelming at times to find a topic that is just right for the speech you are giving. A great way to decide upon the best topic for time limits is to determine if your topic is too broad, too narrow, or if it is a focused topic.
10. Turning Your Topic into Main Points for Your Speech: Tips & Ideas
Once you have a topic in mind, it can sometimes be difficult to decide on main ideas. This lesson will show you brainstorming techniques to help when you get stuck in the speech writing process.
11. Developing a Thesis Statement from Your Speech Topic
The thesis statement is a vital part of your speech. In this lesson, learn how to create a thesis statement and identify problems in existing thesis statements.
12. Effective Research Strategies: Speaking to Your Audience & Purpose
Conducting research is more than just typing a few keywords into a search database. In this lesson, you will learn about effective research strategies and how to tailor your research to your audience.
13. Primary vs. Secondary Research: Difference & Importance
Research is a vital part of any good speech. This lesson will help you distinguish between primary and secondary resources when citing your research. At the end, test your knowledge of primary and secondary resources with practice problems.
14. Types of Supporting Materials for a Speech
When you are developing a speech, you need research to back up your claims. You can use different types of supporting materials strategically to help you. In this lesson, you will learn about these supporting materials and how to use them in your speech.
15. Using Search Engines for Online Research
The Internet can be a resource that saves you time, but if you don't know how to use it properly, it can be a frustrating experience. In this lesson, you will learn about how to properly find supporting materials online with research tips and tricks.
16. Selecting Relevant Support for Your Speech
Supporting materials are the foundation of any good speech. This lesson shows you how to find the right type of supporting materials for the ideas and concepts in your speech!
17. Speech Organization: Importance to Speaker & Audience
In speech writing, it is important to keep the information organized, which demonstrates credibility and makes the speech easier to comprehend. It starts with the main idea, the speech body and a compelling conclusion.
18. Developing & Selecting the Main Ideas of a Speech
The objective of a good speech is to persuade, inform or entertain an audience. To accomplish this, one must have a specific purpose for the speech. This is the main idea or thesis statement and it must be prevalent throughout the speech.
19. Supporting Ideas of a Speech: Development, Selection and Characteristics
When used appropriately, supporting ideas will help strengthen your speech and persuade your audience by giving it the depth needed to add clarity and credibility to your claims.
20. Patterns of Organization for Informative Speeches
Informational speeches are designed to inform an audience about a topic. The information should be organized so it is clear, logical and easy to understand and follow. The pattern of organization depends greatly on the information presented.
21. Patterns of Organization for Persuasive Speeches
Organizing information for a persuasive speech will help to convince your audience of your point and keeps information flowing in a logical order. This can be done using a problem/solution order or Monroe's motivated sequence pattern.
22. How to Work Supporting Materials into Your Speech
A good speech should include supporting materials from secondary sources to back up claims made within the speech. They add credibility and also provide the audience with a way to research more about the topic.
23. Preparation & Speaking Outlines: Differences & Importance
In many public speaking classes you will be asked to create a preparation outline and a speaking outline. These outlines are important in the process of speech construction and delivery.
24. Outlining a Speech: Standard Form & Organization Pattern
Sometimes understanding how to outline a speech can be one of the more difficult and confusing parts of speech construction. In this lesson, you will learn about the formatting and components of a speech.
25. The Importance of Introductions & Conclusions for Speeches
You may think that after writing your main points it's okay to just throw together an introduction and a conclusion. Not true! In this lesson, you will learn about the role and importance of writing a strong introduction and conclusion.
26. Speech Introductions: Role & Components
A speech introduction should give a good first impression, get your audience's attention, establish credibility, and prepare your audience for the content of the speech. In this lesson, you'll learn about the essential components of an introduction.
27. Grabbing the Audience's Attention: Methods & Tips
Attention getting devices are a good way to start your speech, capture the audience's attention, and give a good first impression. This lesson discusses the different types of attention getting devices.
28. Developing the Body of a Speech: Outline & Principles
Developing the body of a speech can be a time-consuming process and a critical part of outlining. This lesson will help you understand the principles of outlining the body of your speech.
29. Speech Conclusions: Role & Components
The conclusion of your speech is the last thing the audience will hear. Therefore, it is important to understand the role and components of a conclusion.
30. Effective Transitions in a Speech: Creation & Importance
An important, yet often overlooked, component of a speech is the transition sentences that move the speaker from one point to the next. Learn how to create these sentences.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Speaking and Listening Grades 9-10: Standards course
- Participate in Discussion: ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1
- Use Multiple Sources of Information: ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.2
- Evaluate Point of View: ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.3
- Use Digital Media: ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.5
- Communicate in Multiple Contexts: ELA.CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.6