About This Chapter
Standard: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks. (CCSS.ELA.LITERACY.SL.11-12.4).
About This Chapter
Students who have mastered the concepts addressed in this standard can effectively and persuasively present a speech to an audience. They can clearly present their ideas that are supported by research and evidence. Students have knowledge of the audience they're speaking to and are able to adapt their presentation to a specific audience.
Concepts on presenting to an audience covered in these lessons include:
- Types of speeches
- Audience-centered speakers
- Audience analysis using informal and formal methods
- Information gathering for audience analysis
- Steps for choosing an appropriate speech topic
- General and specific purposes for a speech
- Thesis statement development
Students have mastery of this standard when they can understand the needs of the audience and the purpose for a speech and create a presentation that works for both. They know how to identify an appropriate topic for their speech and can recognize and address opposing viewpoints. Students who have mastered this standard are aware of time restrictions and know the importance of narrowing their topic so that the key points are addressed within the time constraints.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
Here are some tips for how to use these lessons to support instruction in the standard:
Lessons on Adapting to an Audience
Watch lessons on audience analysis and adapting to an audience during class. Divide the class into small groups of no more than 4 students. Have each student prepare a speech that is adapted to the interests and needs of their small group. At the same time, each student should come up with criteria for determining if a speech works for the selected audience. Students within each group can take turns presenting their speeches and receiving feedback from the audience.
Lessons on Analyzing an Audience
Have students brainstorm formal and informal methods for analyzing an audience before, during and after a speech. Discuss the ways that this information can help improve a speech or prepare speakers for future presentations.
Lessons on Determining a Speaker's Perspective
Provide students with a speech made by a historical figure. Have them read through the speech on their own time. In class, ask students to identify the perspective of the speaker and how he or she supported that perspective. Discuss how the speaker might have analyzed his audience and streamlined his topic to meet the interests of the audience.
1. Types of Speeches: Informative, Persuasive, and Special Occasion
There are essentially three types of speeches public speakers use to influence their audience. In this lesson, we'll look at those three types of speeches and how each serves a different purpose.
2. Be an Audience-Centered Speaker: Focusing on Listeners' Needs
The best way a speaker can ensure that his message is communicated effectively is to consider his audience and their biases and beliefs. Getting to know and understand the audience will help to create a speech that carries meaning.
3. Informal and Formal Methods of Audience Analysis
There are three formal concentrations a good public speaker needs to focus on when conducting a formal audience analysis. There are also times when an informal analysis will do. Learn more about both types in this lesson.
4. Gathering Information for Audience Analysis: Research & Observation
An audience analysis is an essential step in writing and presenting a speech that is meaningful to an audience. The speaker will look at several traits, characteristics and conditions of his audience to best suit the speech to their needs.
5. Adapting to Your Audience During and After Your Speech
Preparing for your speech is only one way in which a speaker can ensure audience adaptation. You need a keen eye for non-verbal cues during and after the speech to determine whether your audience is paying attention.
6. Understanding Reasons for a Public Speaking Event
In this lesson, you'll learn how to prepare for a speaking event. Learn how to tailor your speech to be appropriate for the event based on your background, the occasion and the audience.
7. General Purpose vs. Specific Purpose of a Speech
Understanding the general and specific purpose of your speech will help you develop and focus your speech to meet the needs of your delivery and of your audience. This lesson will help you understand the differences and how to create a specific purpose statement.
8. Choosing an Appropriate Speech Topic: Steps & Characteristics
In this lesson, learn tips and tricks for generating ideas for a speech. We'll explore how to select an appropriate topic and the methods of finding a good topic for your speech.
9. Public Speaking with Time Limits: How to Prepare
It can be overwhelming at times to find a topic that is just right for the speech you are giving. A great way to decide upon the best topic for time limits is to determine if your topic is too broad, too narrow, or if it is a focused topic.
10. Turning Your Topic into Main Points for Your Speech: Tips & Ideas
Once you have a topic in mind, it can sometimes be difficult to decide on main ideas. This lesson will show you brainstorming techniques to help when you get stuck in the speech writing process.
11. Developing a Thesis Statement from Your Speech Topic
The thesis statement is a vital part of your speech. In this lesson, learn how to create a thesis statement and identify problems in existing thesis statements.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Speaking and Listening Grades 11-12: Standards course
- Participate in Discussion: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1
- Groups, Goals and Roles: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1
- Use Multiple Sources of Information: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.2
- Evaluate Point of View: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.3
- Style of a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Supporting Material: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Organization of a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Developing a Speech: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.4
- Use Digital Media: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.5
- Communicate in Multiple Contexts: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.6