About This Chapter
Principles of Cell Metabolism - Chapter Summary
If you need to quickly learn or review the principles of cell metabolism, you're in the right place! This comprehensive biology chapter is made up of short and fun lessons that discuss cell metabolism fundamentals, as well as concepts surrounding redox reactions, ATP molecules, chemical reactions, catalysts, enzymatic reactions and more. The chapter comes with short quizzes, as well as transcripts that you can print out to study offline. Use any computer or mobile device to access these resources, and take advantage of the Ask the Expert feature if you have any questions about the material. Upon completion of the chapter, you should be able to:
- Define metabolism
- Explain the significance of energy in nature
- Analyze examples of redox reactions
- Balance chemical equations
- Recognize ATP molecules
- Describe the essential properties of chemical reactions
- Discuss catalysts and activation energy
- Compare types of catalysts
- Evaluate enzyme functions
- Assess the interactions of coenzymes, cofactors and prosthetic groups
- Interpret inhibition and regulation in enzymatic reactions
- Define the competitive inhibition and allosteric regulation of enzymes
1. Metabolism: Definition & Overview
Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within the body. This concept, however, is much more complex than most of us understand. This lesson describes metabolism and the processes involved.
2. What is a Metabolic Pathway? - Definition & Example
In this lesson, you'll learn about metabolic pathways, chemical reactions that none of us could possibly live without. You'll also explore some examples of metabolic pathways.
3. What is Energy? - Definition and Significance in Nature
This lesson describes the nature of energy and how it is transferred from one source into another. Additionally, it will describe the significance of energy in natural systems.
4. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
This short video will explain oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. The focus is on how electrons are transferred during redox reactions. Learn some neat mnemonic devices to help you remember when an atom is oxidizing or reducing.
5. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
6. Equilibrium: Chemical and Dynamic
Learn the definition of chemical equilibrium and how it is dynamic. Discover what the equilibrium constant is and how it shows whether the reaction favors the reactants or products. Learn how chemists designate equilibrium in an equation and how they show the difference in reaction rate.
7. ATP: Definition & Molecules
ATP is the molecule that fuels life. It is where our cells get the energy needed to perform their tasks. This lesson will define ATP, explain its structure, and briefly outline how it works.
8. Basic Properties of Chemical Reactions
Learn how about the various components of a chemical reaction, and how those components function. Use this lesson to understand the basic properties of different kinds of chemical reactions.
9. Biochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Decomposition
Did you know that there are thousands of chemical reactions going on in your body every day? In this lesson, you will learn about three types of biochemical reactions: synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and reversible reactions.
10. Activation Energy and Catalysts
Learn how to define activation energy and how it relates to a reaction's energy. Learn what an activated complex is and where it fits into an activation energy diagram. Discover how a catalyst works to change the activation energy of a reaction and what this means to metabolism in the body.
11. Catalysts: Definition, Types & Examples
You realize before barbecuing that the charcoal pieces just won't light. You add lighter fluid and see a huge flame! That lighter fluid is called a catalyst. Continue reading to learn what catalysts are, the different types, and examples.
12. Rate of a Chemical Reaction: Modifying Factors
Why are some reactions much faster than others? Is it possible to change how fast a reaction occurs? In this lesson, you will learn what the rate of a chemical reaction is. You will also discover how factors such as temperature, concentration, surface area, and catalysts impact reaction rates.
13. Reaction Mechanisms and The Rate Determining Step
This lesson explores what a reaction mechanism is and how it relates to the speed of a reaction. You'll discover how to pinpoint the rate-determining step and learn how to write a rate law based on the rate-determining step.
14. Function of Enzymes: Substrate, Active Site & Activation Energy
In this lesson, we'll learn how enzymes function to lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction. Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza!
15. Coenzymes, Cofactors & Prosthetic Groups: Function and Interactions
Some enzymes require helpers to recognize a substrate or complete a reaction. These helpers include cofactors, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups, which are required for some enzymes' functions.
16. Enzymatic Reactions: Inhibition and Regulation
Enzymes are generally not allowed to run uncontrolled in a cell. While they are useful in catalyzing reactions, there is a time and place for everything. In this lesson, we'll discuss enzyme activators and inhibitors that regulate these reactions positively and negatively, respectively.
17. Competitive Inhibition of Enzymes: Definition & Examples
This lesson gives a brief overview of enzymes and enzyme function. It further defines competitive inhibition and provides real-life examples of competitive inhibitors.
18. Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes: Definition & Significance
In this lesson, we'll conduct a brief review of enzymes, including what they are and what they do. We'll also use the analogy of a light switch to explore allosteric regulation and the reason that the process is so important to enzymes.
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Other chapters within the Biology 203: Cell & Molecular Biology course
- Biological Molecules
- Cell Structure & Function Overview
- Cell Membrane & Transport Overview
- Photosynthesis Fundamentals
- Cellular Respiration & Fermentation
- Cell Cycles
- Patterns of Genetic Inheritance
- DNA Structure & Replication
- Mutation & DNA Damage
- The Central Dogma of Biology & Protein Synthesis
- Structure & Function of Viruses
- Control of Gene Expression
- Genetic Manipulation Overview