About This Chapter
Principles of Cell Structure & Function - Chapter Summary
The principles of cell function and structure are the focus of this chapter. Our series of video lessons covers various cell features including the structure and functions of organelles as well as protein synthesis. You'll also study eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, the structure of viruses and the endomembrane system. Once you finish watching these videos, you should be ready to:
- Provide an overview of cell communication
- Detail the structure of the chloroplast
- Identify the components of the mitochondria structure
- Define chemiosmosis and understand its processes
- Outline diffusion, saturation and osmosis
- Explore passive transport in cells
- Give examples of active transport in cells
- Differentiate between endocytosis and exocytosis across the cell membrane
To help ensure that you understand what you learn, we've provided short quizzes with our lessons and a comprehensive test at the end of the chapter. All of our materials are accessible 24 hours a day on any mobile device or computer for your convenience. Our printable lesson transcripts make portable study guides you can use offline at any time. For assistance from an instructor, submit any questions you have through the Dashboard.
1. The Cell: Structure & Function
The cell is a small, but complex structure. Take a look inside the outer plasma membrane of a cell and discover the functions of some common cellular components, including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, in this lesson.
2. Organelles in Cells: Definition & Functions
This lesson will focus on the major organelles that are found inside eukaryotic cells. It will discuss their structures and functions. The differences in organelles found in plant and animal cells will also be covered.
3. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
4. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
5. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
6. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
7. An Overview of Cell Communication
Cellular communication is an important process that allows cells to pass signals to one another. In this video lesson, you will be introduced to the process of cellular communication, identifying the three steps of cellular signaling in organisms.
8. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
9. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
10. What is Chemiosmosis? - Definition & Process
This lesson is about chemiosmosis, an important process that allows our bodies to make energy. In this lesson, we'll discuss what chemiosmosis is and how it works, and we'll look at some actual applications in the body.
11. Osmosis, Diffusion and Saturation
The cells in our bodies are in constant flux through the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Learn about how saturation levels force change, and why we're lucky they do.
12. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
13. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
14. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
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Other chapters within the CSET Science Subtest II Life Sciences (217): Practice & Study Guide course
- The Organization & Function of Multicellular Organisms
- The Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meoisis
- Matter & Energy Flow in Organisms
- Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
- Cycles of Matter & Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
- Biodiversity & Sustainability
- DNA & Gene Expression
- Genetics & Inheritance
- Genetic Variation & Engineering
- Overview of Biological Evolution on Earth
- The Role of Natural Selection in Biological Evolution
- Adaptation in Biological Evolution
- CSET Science Subtest 2 Life Sciences Flashcards