About This Chapter
Principles of Chemistry - Chapter Summary
While going through these lessons, you'll improve your understanding of principles of chemistry. Some of the topics covered include Gay-Lussac's law, Boyle's law, and Charles' law. This self-paced resource can also help you understand how mixtures are created by combining elements and compounds. After reviewing the lessons, you should be ready to:
- Explain states of matter and chemical versus physical changes
- Discuss how elements are building blocks of matter
- Describe how elements are organized on the periodic table
- Explain the law of conservation of mass
- Provide examples of the laws of definite proportions and multiple proportions
- Describe the ideal gas law and the gas constant
- Discuss the combined gas law
These lessons can help you quickly get up to speed on the principles of chemistry. Vocabulary words are highlighted in bold for quick reference. You can use the Help feature to submit questions to instructors if you get stuck on a topic. Video timelines let you easily navigate to specific topics. Each lesson includes a full written transcript that you can print and use even when you're away from the computer.
1. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
The world around us is constantly changing. Chemists put those changes into two main categories: physical changes and chemical changes. This lesson will define and provide examples of each.
2. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
3. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
4. Creating Mixtures by Combining Elements & Compounds
Do you really know what's in your tap water? It's not just water - it's a mixture of many different things. In fact, most things are mixtures of different elements and compounds that are physically joined together.
5. The Law of Conservation of Mass: Definition, Equation & Examples
Read about the law of conservation of mass, its role in chemistry, and its importance in the universe. Learn the equation, review examples, and test your knowledge of the material with a short quiz.
6. The Law of Definite Proportions: Definition & Examples
Have you ever had to double a baking recipe? The trick is to always keep the ingredient proportions the same as in the original recipe. This cooking principle follows the Law of Definite Proportions in chemistry, which is the focus of this lesson.
7. Law of Multiple Proportions: Definition & Examples
We often deal with different combinations of the same things every day. The same thing goes for chemistry, where elements can combine to form two or more compounds. This is possible according to the law of multiple proportions, which we will discuss in this lesson.
8. Law of Reciprocal Proportion: Definition & Examples
Jeremias Richter discovered the Law of Reciprocal Proportion in the late 18th century. In this lesson we will learn what this law is and how it is used by looking at some examples.
9. Gay-Lussac's Law: Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship
You may know that you aren't supposed to put an aerosol can in a fire because it could explode, but do you know why? In this lesson, we will explain Gay-Lussac's law, which shows the relationship between the temperature and pressure of a gas.
10. Boyle's Law: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship
Have you ever wondered how an air powered water gun works? It uses the fantastic properties of gases to make a summer day more enjoyable! In this lesson, we will be discussing Boyle's Law and the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
11. Charles' Law: Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship
In this lesson, we will discover why the wind blows and what causes a hot air balloon to rise, a couple of the applications of Charles' Law that explain the relationship between the volume and temperature of a gas.
12. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.
13. Combined Gas Law: Definition, Formula & Example
While studying chemistry, you may have learned about the different gas laws, including Boyle's law, Charles' law, and Gay-Lussac's law. What happens if we combine all these laws together? We come up with a whole new gas law: the combined gas law, which we'll take a look at in this lesson.
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