About This Chapter
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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding natural selection and speciation
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- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
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- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Principles of Evolution chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are the guiding principles behind the theory of evolution?
- How does the Hardy Weinberg equation work?
- How do adaptation and natural selection occur?
- What does allopatric and sympatric speciation mean?
- How are prezygotic and postzygotic barriers defined?
1. Theories of Evolution: Lamarck vs. Darwin
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
2. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview
In this lesson, we'll examine population genetics in greater detail. We'll also explore notions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for large, stable populations. Is the genetic makeup of our flying hamster population changing? The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can serve as a reference point as we try to answer population genetics questions.
3. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation is represented by a polynomial, so we'll have to do some calculations. Don't be intimidated; a few coin tosses can help us make sense of allelic frequencies in a given gene pool.
4. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents
In this lesson, you'll learn how the Hardy-Weinberg equation relates to different evolutionary agents and population changes. Discover how the equation may be used to discover populations that are not in equilibrium.
5. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
6. Natural Selection: Definition, Types & Examples
We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.
7. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.
8. Prezygotic Reproductive Barriers & Speciation: Definition & Examples
We may take for granted why animals choose to mate with other animals of similar appearance, but it's not that simple. There are actually biological barriers to reproduction that can prevent even seemingly closely related species from reproducing. This lesson looks at one such category of hindrances, prezygotic barriers, which make fertilization impossible.
9. Postzygotic Reproductive Barriers: Definition & Examples
Do flying hamsters represent a separate species from your run-of-the-mill hamsters? We'll get to the bottom of this by performing crosses between the two hamster types. You'll explore postzygotic reproductive barriers and their possibly tragic consequences.
10. Selective Pressure: Definition & Example
Because of selective pressures, organisms with certain phenotypes have an advantage when it comes to survival and reproduction. Over time, this leads to evolution. In this lesson, you'll learn about various selective pressures and their consequences.
11. Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection: Overview
In this lesson, you'll be introduced to Charles Darwin and his theory of natural selection. You'll also learn a bit about how his ideas impacted science, popular understandings of human origins, and the debate his theories have sparked.
12. Disruptive Selection: Example, Definition & Graph
How do new species develop? One evolutionary mechanism that may be at play is disruptive selection. Though rare in nature, this process favors extreme traits over those that are more intermediate.
13. Emergent Properties: Definition & Examples
Living organisms, from the simplest bacteria to human beings, display levels of organization. Complete this lesson to find out how emergent properties arise at each level - from simple atoms to the biosphere. After the lesson, there will be a quiz to test what you have learned.
14. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Theory of Evolution: Overview
You might know about Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution. However, it was the lesser known, yet influential, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck who put forth a theory that laid the early foundations for the study of evolution.
15. Abiogenesis: Definition, Theory & Evidence
This lesson defines abiogenesis and discusses the evidence which supports the theory. This lesson will discuss primitive Earth and the possibilities of how the first life on Earth started from a purely scientific perspective.
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