About This Chapter
Principles of Genetics - Chapter Summary
If you need help studying the principles of genetics, you've reached the right place! This chapter takes a close look at DNA replication, genetic engineering, the Punnett square and other related concepts. After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
- Discuss genetics concepts like heredity, traits and chromosomes
- Exhibit knowledge of Mendel's first and second laws
- Define and share an example of the Punnett square
- Explain how to solve complex genetics problems using probability
- Describe how the genetic code is translated into a polypeptide
- Provide an explanation of protein synthesis in the cell and the central dogma
- Share the definition and examples of genetic engineering
Every lesson in this chapter is available in two formats. Watch the lessons as short videos that average eight minutes each, or read them as full transcripts you can also print to take additional notes. While reviewing the lessons, feel free to send any questions to our subject-matter experts if you don't fully understand a concept or need more details. Before taking your exam, be sure to check your knowledge of each lesson and the entire chapter by taking our short quizzes and a practice exam.
1. Genetics: Heredity, Traits & Chromosomes
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
3. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
4. Punnett Square: Definition & Example
This lesson will define what a Punnett square is and show several examples of how one can be used. It will also briefly describe patterns of inheritance.
5. Using Probability to Solve Complex Genetics Problems
In this lesson, you're going to learn how to use Punnett squares and the multiplication rule to quickly solve complex genetic problems with respect to the law of independent assortment.
6. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
7. How Does DNA Replicate?
In this lesson, we will learn why DNA replicates as well as how. We'll also learn about the rates of replication and how DNA proofreads itself. After watching the lesson, you can complete a short quiz to test your knowledge.
8. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
9. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
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