About This Chapter
Principles of Immunology - Chapter Summary
This chapter guides you through central principles in immunology by looking at the components that contribute to the immune system as well as related terms and biological concepts. You'll also see how the immune system works with other systems and elements of biological makeup. The dashboard feature can help you stay organized through this material, with quick views of your progress and recent studying activity. By the end of the chapter, you'll have given your knowledge a boost when it comes to:
- The concept of immunity and the anatomical barricades setup by the immune system
- Symptoms of inflammation and what causes it
- The purpose served by granulocytes and the forms they come in
- Components of the innate and nonspecific immune system
- Function of the complement and lymphatic system
- Forms of adaptive immunity
- Differentiating between T and B cells
- Classifying antibodies and understanding their structure and function
- How autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity can occur
- Distinguishing between blood types
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
This lesson will cover something known as the lymphatic system. You'll learn about bone marrow, lymph, the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and much more as we explore this critical component of your immune system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
15. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
16. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
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Other chapters within the Biology 103: Microbiology course
- Microbiology Basics
- Biology of Bacteria
- The Disease Process
- Introduction to Viruses
- DNA Viruses
- RNA Viruses
- Diseases Caused By Protozoa
- Fungal Infections
- Foodborne Diseases and Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
- Blood-borne Bacterial Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
- Bacterial Wound and Skin Infections
- Antimicrobial Drugs
- Studying for Biology 103