About This Chapter
Procedures of Scientific Investigation - Chapter Summary
From scientific observations to data analysis, this chapter allows you to review details about ways in which scientific data is analyzed. You will have the opportunity to study tools used for data analysis as well as reporting techniques.
This chapter also provides information about research sources, scientific equations, investigative methods and more. After you have reviewed this entire chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Explain the role of observation in the scientific process
- Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data
- Understand scientific notations, create and read scientific charts and graphs and use tables to organize scientific data
- Calculate measurements and solve scientific equations
- Understand inconsistency and errors in scientific investigation
- List print and online sources that can be used to gather scientific data and explain how to select sources that are reliable, valid and accurate
- Apply the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
- Use techniques to ensure the accuracy of scientific data
Each technique, method and tool is explained using simple language, illustrations and examples that clarify the material and make it easy to retain. You can measure how much information you have retained by taking short self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson. Chart your progress through this chapter on your Dashboard and utilize online contact forms to ask instructors any lesson-specific questions you might have.
1. How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning
Scientific observations are a major component of the scientific process because they lead scientists to ask questions about the world around them. These questions may then be refined with continued observation, or they may be tested through experimentation.
2. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data in Various Research Methods
Qualitative data and quantitative data are both useful in research, but it is important to understand the differences between the two. Learn how to differentiate the two types of data in this lesson.
3. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation
Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.
4. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts
How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.
5. How to Construct Graphs from Data & Interpret Them
After watching this video, you should be able to explain what a graph is, construct a scatter plot, and interpret scatter plots from scientific data. A short quiz will follow.
6. Organizing and Understanding Data with Tables & Schedules
In math, when we have to deal with a lot of data, having a visual format to present all the data becomes very useful. Watch this video lesson to learn how you can take advantage of two of these visual formats.
7. Measurements & Uncertainty in Science
In this lesson, you will discover the importance of precision and accuracy in science while learning to make measurements. Also, you will understand how to perform calculations with measurements that conserve precision and limit uncertainty.
8. Identifying Potential Reasons for Inconsistent Experiment Results
Repeating an experiment helps ensure that you designed and implemented it correctly. But what if you don't get the same results each time? In this lesson, we'll explore potential reasons for this and how you might avoid it in the future.
9. Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error
Good data are essential for any experiment. But no matter how hard you try, error in your data is unavoidable. In this lesson, you'll learn about the types of unavoidable experimental error to be on the lookout for and how to reduce their occurrence in your data.
10. Evaluating Data from Scientific Investigation
After watching this video, you will be able to explain the meaning of the terms 'accuracy' and 'reproducibility,' or precision, as they relate to science experiments. A short quiz will follow.
11. Print & Electronic Sources for Scientific Research
Sources provide you with helpful background information that support your own work. You can find sources both online and in printed materials. There are benefits and drawbacks to each, so you'll need to consider which is best for you and your project.
12. Scientific Sources: Accuracy, Reliability & Validity
It's important to use other sources to support your work, but what's even more important is to use the right ones. Sources should be valid, reliable, and accurate, but it's not always easy to tell which ones meet these criteria.
13. Solve for Unknowns in Scientific Equations
Calculating a missing value in an equation is something you may come across in your scientific analyses. As long as you know the relationship between the variables in the equation, as well as the rest of the measured values, this is a relatively straightforward process for you to master.
14. Mathematical Modeling - Hardy-Weinberg: Biology Lab
What is a scientific model? How can we create them? How can they be used in biology? In this lesson, you'll answer all of these questions as you explore how a model called the Hardy-Weinberg theorem can be used to predict how a population will change over time.
15. Techniques to Maintain Data Integrity from Scientific Instruments
In order to be a good scientist, you have to make sure that your data is worthwhile. But how can you be sure of that? This lesson goes over many of the techniques you can use to be sure that your data is both accurate and precise.
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Other chapters within the VCE Chemistry: Exam Prep & Study Guide course
- Steps of the Scientific Method
- Designing Scientific Experiments
- Lab & Science Safety
- Drawing Conclusions & Communicating Scientific Ideas
- Atoms & Atomic Structure
- Understanding Elements & Periodicity
- Block & Group Elements
- Metals in Chemistry
- Ionic Compounds
- Quantifying Atoms
- Materials From Molecules
- Carbon Lattices & Nanomaterials
- Properties of Organic Compounds
- Polymer Basics
- Elements in the Universe
- Alchemy, Chemistry & the Periodic Table
- Lanthanoids & Actinoids
- Using Light to Solve Chemical Puzzles
- Properties of Glass
- Crude Oil & the Environment
- Polymers, Composite Materials & Nanomaterials
- Properties of Water in Chemistry
- Acid-Base Reactions
- Redox Reactions
- Water Sample Analysis
- Measurement of Solubility & Concentration
- Analysis for Salts in Water
- Organic Compounds in Water
- Acids & Bases in Water
- Fuel Choices
- Energy From Fuels
- Fuel Cells & Galvanic Cells
- Rate & Extent of Chemical Changes
- Production of Chemicals by Electrolysis
- Analyzing Organic Compounds
- Key Food Molecules
- Metabolism in the Human Body
- VCE Chemistry Flashcards