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Ch 3: Procedures of Scientific Investigation

About This Chapter

How is scientific information gathered, organized and studied? Using this detailed chapter, you can learn more about this topic to boost your science class studies or prepare for various types of exams, including college entrance and placement exams.

Procedures of Scientific Investigation - Chapter Summary

From scientific observations to data analysis, this chapter allows you to review details about ways in which scientific data is analyzed. You will have the opportunity to study tools used for data analysis as well as reporting techniques.

This chapter also provides information about research sources, scientific equations, investigative methods and more. After you have reviewed this entire chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  • Explain the role of observation in the scientific process
  • Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data
  • Understand scientific notations, create and read scientific charts and graphs and use tables to organize scientific data
  • Calculate measurements and solve scientific equations
  • Understand inconsistency and errors in scientific investigation
  • List print and online sources that can be used to gather scientific data and explain how to select sources that are reliable, valid and accurate
  • Apply the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
  • Use techniques to ensure the accuracy of scientific data

Each technique, method and tool is explained using simple language, illustrations and examples that clarify the material and make it easy to retain. You can measure how much information you have retained by taking short self-assessment quizzes at the end of each lesson. Chart your progress through this chapter on your Dashboard and utilize online contact forms to ask instructors any lesson-specific questions you might have.

15 Lessons in Chapter 3: Procedures of Scientific Investigation
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning

1. How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning

Scientific observations are a major component of the scientific process because they lead scientists to ask questions about the world around them. These questions may then be refined with continued observation, or they may be tested through experimentation.

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data in Various Research Methods

2. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Data in Various Research Methods

Qualitative data and quantitative data are both useful in research, but it is important to understand the differences between the two. Learn how to differentiate the two types of data in this lesson.

Significant Figures and Scientific Notation

3. Significant Figures and Scientific Notation

Are 7.5 grams and 7.50 grams the same? How do scientists represent very large and very small quantities? Find out the answers to these questions in this video.

How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

4. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.

How to Construct Graphs from Data & Interpret Them

5. How to Construct Graphs from Data & Interpret Them

After watching this video, you should be able to explain what a graph is, construct a scatter plot, and interpret scatter plots from scientific data. A short quiz will follow.

Organizing and Understanding Data with Tables & Schedules

6. Organizing and Understanding Data with Tables & Schedules

In math, when we have to deal with a lot of data, having a visual format to present all the data becomes very useful. Watch this video lesson to learn how you can take advantage of two of these visual formats.

Measurements & Uncertainty in Science

7. Measurements & Uncertainty in Science

In this lesson, you will discover the importance of precision and accuracy in science while learning to make measurements. Also, you will understand how to perform calculations with measurements that conserve precision and limit uncertainty.

Identifying Potential Reasons for Inconsistent Experiment Results

8. Identifying Potential Reasons for Inconsistent Experiment Results

Repeating an experiment helps ensure that you designed and implemented it correctly. But what if you don't get the same results each time? In this lesson, we'll explore potential reasons for this and how you might avoid it in the future.

Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error

9. Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error

Good data are essential for any experiment. But no matter how hard you try, error in your data is unavoidable. In this lesson, you'll learn about the types of unavoidable experimental error to be on the lookout for and how to reduce their occurrence in your data.

Evaluating Data from Scientific Investigation

10. Evaluating Data from Scientific Investigation

After watching this video, you will be able to explain the meaning of the terms 'accuracy' and 'reproducibility,' or precision, as they relate to science experiments. A short quiz will follow.

Print & Electronic Sources for Scientific Research

11. Print & Electronic Sources for Scientific Research

Sources provide you with helpful background information that support your own work. You can find sources both online and in printed materials. There are benefits and drawbacks to each, so you'll need to consider which is best for you and your project.

Scientific Sources: Accuracy, Reliability & Validity

12. Scientific Sources: Accuracy, Reliability & Validity

It's important to use other sources to support your work, but what's even more important is to use the right ones. Sources should be valid, reliable, and accurate, but it's not always easy to tell which ones meet these criteria.

Solve for Unknowns in Scientific Equations

13. Solve for Unknowns in Scientific Equations

Calculating a missing value in an equation is something you may come across in your scientific analyses. As long as you know the relationship between the variables in the equation, as well as the rest of the measured values, this is a relatively straightforward process for you to master.

Mathematical Modeling - Hardy-Weinberg: Biology Lab

14. Mathematical Modeling - Hardy-Weinberg: Biology Lab

What is a scientific model? How can we create them? How can they be used in biology? In this lesson, you'll answer all of these questions as you explore how a model called the Hardy-Weinberg theorem can be used to predict how a population will change over time.

Techniques to Maintain Data Integrity from Scientific Instruments

15. Techniques to Maintain Data Integrity from Scientific Instruments

In order to be a good scientist, you have to make sure that your data is worthwhile. But how can you be sure of that? This lesson goes over many of the techniques you can use to be sure that your data is both accurate and precise.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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