Ch 31: Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Prokaryotic Cells chapter of this MCAT Prep Help and Review course is the simplest way to master prokaryotic cells. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of prokaryotic cells for the MCAT.

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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering MCAT material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to prepare for the MCAT. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding the functions of prokaryotic cell structures or the processes of bacterial metabolism and reproduction
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about prokaryotic cells for the MCAT
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT chapter exam to be prepared.
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  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a prokaryotic cells unit of a standard science course. Topics covered include:

  • The evolution of prokaryotes
  • Bacterial cell morphology
  • Bacterial cytoplasm and cell membranes
  • Characteristics of bacteria
  • Bacterial cell structures and functions
  • Bacterial endospores
  • Types of bacterial cell walls
  • Bacterial plasmids
  • The bacterial genome
  • Bacterial conjugation
  • Bacterial transformation and transduction
  • Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial metabolism
  • Bacterial fermentation
  • E. coli as a model organism
  • Growth requirements of E. coli

18 Lessons in Chapter 31: Prokaryotic Cells for the MCAT: Help and Review
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
The Evolution of Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

1. The Evolution of Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

Learn about the evolution of Prokaryotes and their two domains: archaea and bacteria. The topics covered include the definition and characteristics of prokaryotes, and the difference between archaebacteria and eubacteria.

What is Bacteria? - Definition, Characteristics & Examples

2. What is Bacteria? - Definition, Characteristics & Examples

Despite being small, bacteria has a serious effect. Learn defining characteristics and examples of bacteria, how it grows and metabolizes, and its role in health and disease.

Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements

3. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements

Bacterial cell morphology can be classified into three main shapes, which are coccus, bacillus, and spiral. Learn about the three main shapes of bacterial cells, their cell arrangements, and spiral cell variations

Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components

4. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components

A bacterial cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer that functions as a barrier. Bacterial cytoplasm is found within the cell membrane and contains the necessary nutrients and organisms of the cell. Learn about the structure of bacterial cells, the function of each cellular component (cell membrane & cytoplasm), and the importance of surface area/volume to the survival of bacterial cells.

Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types

5. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types

The primary function of a bacterial cell wall is to preserve the shape and integrity of the cell. However, the cell wall must also be porous to allow for the transportation of nutrients and waste material into and out of the cell. Learn about the structure and types of bacterial cell walls, the function of cell walls, osmotic pressure, cell envelope, cell wall, peptidoglycan, and gram-positive vs. gram-negative bacteria.

Bacterial Structures and Their Functions

6. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions

The external structures of bacterial cells vary per species and each type of structure is made for a specific function that helps the bacteria thrive and survive. Learn about the different types of bacterial structures such as the pili, fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyx, and their specific functions.

Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation

7. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation

Bacterial endospores are dormant cell structures produced by some species of bacteria that are resistant to extreme environmental factors, chemical degradation, and time. Learn about ancient bacteria, the definition of bacterial endospores, features of endospores (germination & formation), how to kill endospores, and the relationship between bacterial endospores and disease.

The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization

8. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization

Even though bacteria are tiny organisms, they have enormous genomes, which is the full set of genes in an organism. Learn about the structure and organization of the bacterial genome, including how supercoiling allows large-sized genomes to fit inside of cells and how plasmids contribute to bacterial DNA.

Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses

9. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses

In most cases, the DNA an organism is born with dictates its traits, but for bacteria, plasmids change the game. Learn how F plasmids allow bacteria to transfer characteristics between individuals in tiny packages of DNA, such as R plasmids that protect bacteria and bacteriocins that fight off other bacterias.

Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol

10. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol

While bacteria can reproduce asexually through a cloning process called vertical gene transfer, some bacteria reproduce with horizontal gene transfer using bacterial conjugation. Learn more about the definition and protocol of bacterial conjugation and discover the important roles that plasmid transfer and/or chromosome transfer play in the process.

Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications

11. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications

Bacterial transformation is a natural phenomenon during which bacterial cells take free DNA from the environment and integrate it with bacterial genomes to create genetic diversity within the bacterial population. Learn about bacterial sexual reproduction, the definition of horizontal gene transfer, the process of bacterial transformation, and practical applications of transformation as a tool for biotechnology.

Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages

12. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages

Transduction is the process by which bacteriophages infect and kill host cells and is necessary to horizontal gene transfers in bacterial cells. Learn about the discovery of transduction and how to define the term, the process and mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, the two types of transduction (generalized & specialized), and advantages of bacterial transduction.

Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

13. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

To understand bacterial metabolism, is it useful to break metabolic processes into individual blocks, exploring how those blocks work together to generate cell energy. Learn to define aerobic bacterial metabolism and discover the process of aerobic bacterial metabolism through visualization of metabolic pathways.

Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

14. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process

Bacteria, through a process called anaerobic bacterial metabolism, survive in environments where mammals normally wouldn't be able to. Understand this process through a definition and examples such as nitrate respiration and sulfate respiration.

Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products

15. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products

Bacterial fermentation is a metabolic process in which bacterial cells use a chemical substrate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary for energy production and cell growth. Explore bacterial fermentation, anaerobic bacterial metabolism, the basics of fermentation, glycolysis, and other fermentation substrates, and the differences between respiration and fermentation.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell

16. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is a mammalian gut bacteria frequently used by scientists as a model organism or host cell to research biological phenomena with the intention of applying discoveries to other biological species. Explore the past and present of E.coli outbreaks, implications of genetic manipulation, and how model organisms assist with biological research.

Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs

17. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs

E. coli is prototroph bacteria capable of synthesizing all the growth factors necessary for survival, whereas auxotroph bacteria is a mutant strain incapable of producing a specific growth factor. Learn about extreme bacteria, factors that control the rate of bacterial growth like temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH, as well as the growth requirements of E. coli auxotrophs.

Do Prokaryotes Have a Cell Membrane?

18. Do Prokaryotes Have a Cell Membrane?

In this lesson, we'll answer the question: Do prokaryotes have a cell membrane? We'll also discuss the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and define some key terms like nucleus and ribosomes.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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