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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a prokaryotic cells unit of a standard science course. Topics covered include:
- The evolution of prokaryotes
- Bacterial cell morphology
- Bacterial cytoplasm and cell membranes
- Characteristics of bacteria
- Bacterial cell structures and functions
- Bacterial endospores
- Types of bacterial cell walls
- Bacterial plasmids
- The bacterial genome
- Bacterial conjugation
- Bacterial transformation and transduction
- Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial metabolism
- Bacterial fermentation
- E. coli as a model organism
- Growth requirements of E. coli
1. The Evolution of Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Learn about the evolution of Prokaryotes and their two domains: archaea and bacteria. The topics covered include the definition and characteristics of prokaryotes, and the difference between archaebacteria and eubacteria.
2. What is Bacteria? - Definition, Characteristics & Examples
Despite being small, bacteria has a serious effect. Learn defining characteristics and examples of bacteria, how it grows and metabolizes, and its role in health and disease.
3. Bacterial Cell Morphology and Classification: Definition, Shapes & Arrangements
Bacterial cell morphology can be classified into three main shapes, which are coccus, bacillus, and spiral. Learn about the three main shapes of bacterial cells, their cell arrangements, and spiral cell variations
4. Bacterial Cytoplasm & Cell Membrane: Structure & Components
A bacterial cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer that functions as a barrier. Bacterial cytoplasm is found within the cell membrane and contains the necessary nutrients and organisms of the cell. Learn about the structure of bacterial cells, the function of each cellular component (cell membrane & cytoplasm), and the importance of surface area/volume to the survival of bacterial cells.
5. Bacterial Cell Walls: Structure, Function & Types
The primary function of a bacterial cell wall is to preserve the shape and integrity of the cell. However, the cell wall must also be porous to allow for the transportation of nutrients and waste material into and out of the cell. Learn about the structure and types of bacterial cell walls, the function of cell walls, osmotic pressure, cell envelope, cell wall, peptidoglycan, and gram-positive vs. gram-negative bacteria.
6. Bacterial Structures and Their Functions
The external structures of bacterial cells vary per species and each type of structure is made for a specific function that helps the bacteria thrive and survive. Learn about the different types of bacterial structures such as the pili, fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyx, and their specific functions.
7. Bacterial Endospores: Definition & Formation
Bacterial endospores are dormant cell structures produced by some species of bacteria that are resistant to extreme environmental factors, chemical degradation, and time. Learn about ancient bacteria, the definition of bacterial endospores, features of endospores (germination & formation), how to kill endospores, and the relationship between bacterial endospores and disease.
8. The Bacterial Genome: Structure & Organization
Even though bacteria are tiny organisms, they have enormous genomes, which is the full set of genes in an organism. Learn about the structure and organization of the bacterial genome, including how supercoiling allows large-sized genomes to fit inside of cells and how plasmids contribute to bacterial DNA.
9. Bacterial Plasmids: Definition, Function & Uses
In most cases, the DNA an organism is born with dictates its traits, but for bacteria, plasmids change the game. Learn how F plasmids allow bacteria to transfer characteristics between individuals in tiny packages of DNA, such as R plasmids that protect bacteria and bacteriocins that fight off other bacterias.
10. Bacterial Conjugation: Definition & Protocol
While bacteria can reproduce asexually through a cloning process called vertical gene transfer, some bacteria reproduce with horizontal gene transfer using bacterial conjugation. Learn more about the definition and protocol of bacterial conjugation and discover the important roles that plasmid transfer and/or chromosome transfer play in the process.
11. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process & Applications
Bacterial transformation is a natural phenomenon during which bacterial cells take free DNA from the environment and integrate it with bacterial genomes to create genetic diversity within the bacterial population. Learn about bacterial sexual reproduction, the definition of horizontal gene transfer, the process of bacterial transformation, and practical applications of transformation as a tool for biotechnology.
12. Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages
Transduction is the process by which bacteriophages infect and kill host cells and is necessary to horizontal gene transfers in bacterial cells. Learn about the discovery of transduction and how to define the term, the process and mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer, the two types of transduction (generalized & specialized), and advantages of bacterial transduction.
13. Aerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
To understand bacterial metabolism, is it useful to break metabolic processes into individual blocks, exploring how those blocks work together to generate cell energy. Learn to define aerobic bacterial metabolism and discover the process of aerobic bacterial metabolism through visualization of metabolic pathways.
14. Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism: Definition & Process
Bacteria, through a process called anaerobic bacterial metabolism, survive in environments where mammals normally wouldn't be able to. Understand this process through a definition and examples such as nitrate respiration and sulfate respiration.
15. Bacterial Fermentation Process & Products
Bacterial fermentation is a metabolic process in which bacterial cells use a chemical substrate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary for energy production and cell growth. Explore bacterial fermentation, anaerobic bacterial metabolism, the basics of fermentation, glycolysis, and other fermentation substrates, and the differences between respiration and fermentation.
16. Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a Model Organism or Host Cell
Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, is a mammalian gut bacteria frequently used by scientists as a model organism or host cell to research biological phenomena with the intention of applying discoveries to other biological species. Explore the past and present of E.coli outbreaks, implications of genetic manipulation, and how model organisms assist with biological research.
17. Growth Requirements of E. coli and Auxotrophs
E. coli is prototroph bacteria capable of synthesizing all the growth factors necessary for survival, whereas auxotroph bacteria is a mutant strain incapable of producing a specific growth factor. Learn about extreme bacteria, factors that control the rate of bacterial growth like temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH, as well as the growth requirements of E. coli auxotrophs.
18. Do Prokaryotes Have a Cell Membrane?
In this lesson, we'll answer the question: Do prokaryotes have a cell membrane? We'll also discuss the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes and define some key terms like nucleus and ribosomes.
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