About This Chapter
PSSA - Science Grade 8: Solutions & Elements - Chapter Summary
Using this chapter as a study guide for the PSSA - Science Grade 8 exam, students will brush up on elements and solutions. By the end of the chapter, students will have a better understanding of:
- Definition of elements
- How elements are used to build molecules and compounds
- Explanation of solutions, electrolytes and nonelectrolytes
- Description of solubility and solubility curves
- Factors involved in the rate of dissolution
- How to calculate molarity and molality concentration
- Ways to find the dilution of solutions
- Raoult's Law and colligative properties
- Methods for determining molar mass with colligative properties
Our expert instructors have developed these lessons to help students easily absorb and retain the information being explored. Each lesson contains an engaging video that helps illustrate the material. Video transcripts are included for text-based learning. Students can use the timeline below the video to easily navigate through the lesson. Quizzes are included to test students' knowledge, and a cumulative chapter exam is available for students to apply all that they have learned.
1. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
2. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
3. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
4. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn the abbreviations and meaning of molarity and molality. Then apply what you have learned by going over some sample calculations with given concentrations.
5. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
6. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
7. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
8. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
9. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are like people and have different personalities? A few elements are very shy and love to be left alone. Others are very social and prefer to hang out with friends. In this lesson we will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds.
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Other chapters within the PSSA - Science Grade 8: Test Prep & Practice course
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Research & Experiments
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Scientific Inquiry
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Environmental Issues
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: History, Nature & Relationships of Science
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Interpreting Data
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Evaluating Change in a System
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Scientific Instruments
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Systems, Models & Patterns
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Structure & Function of Living Things
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Organism Characteristics & Biological Evolution
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Natural Selection & Evolution
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Genetics & Inherited Traits
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Biomes
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Ecological Systems
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Human Impact on the Environment
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Renewable & Non-Renewable Resources
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Matter
- Overview of Stoichiometry
- Types of Reactions in Chemistry
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Earth's Energy Resources
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Transfer & Conversion of Energy
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Solar Radiation & Energy
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Motion
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Force
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Analyzing Forces & Motion
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Earthquakes, Rocks & Earth
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Weathering & Erosion
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: The Water Cycle
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Water Systems on Earth
- Ground Water Systems
- Running Bodies of Water
- Weather Events
- Geomorphology of Arid Regions
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Atmospheric, Weather & Wind Patterns
- Global Temperature Patterns & The Atmosphere
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Climate & Climate Change
- Atmospheric Pressure and Wind
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Clouds
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Earth, Moon & Sun
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: The Moon
- PSSA - Science Grade 8: Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- PSSA - Science Grade 8 Flashcards