About This Chapter
Relatedness Between Species - Chapter Summary
This chapter enables you to learn about or enhance your existing understanding of relatedness between species. Use the lessons to delve into topics that include the evolution of novel phenotypes and the evolutionary relationships of organisms. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Define evolutionary relationships and discuss how they are determined
- Explain the meaning and use of the DNA hybridization technique
- Describe how the relationship between organisms is studied using cladograms and phylogenetic trees
- Discuss how novel phenotypes have evolved
If your schedule is tight, and you are concerned that you won't have the time to study this chapter's concepts, don't worry! All lessons and other study resources are accessible 24/7 anywhere you can secure an Internet connection. Review the lessons during any gaps in your schedule via any smartphone or tablet. When ready, test your knowledge of the lessons and entire chapter by taking short quizzes and the practice exam.
1. The Evolutionary Relationships of Organisms
In this lesson, we will discuss what evolutionary relationships mean, how we describe them, and how we determine them using morphological and molecular data. We will learn how the molecular clock determines our relationships by tracing random mutations.
2. DNA Hybridization Technique: Definition & Example
In this lesson, we'll be looking at how to use the DNA hybridization technique to assess the relatedness between species. We'll go over how this technique works and some examples.
3. Cladograms and Phylogenetic Trees: Evolution Classifications
Family trees help show how people are related to each other. Similarly, scientists use cladograms and phylogenetic trees to study the relationships between organisms.
4. The Evolution of Novel Phenotypes
In this lesson we'll be reviewing what evolution is, and how changes in master switches of the genetic code can lead to large scale changes in phenotypes. We'll look at two examples specifically, novel beak formation in the Galapagos finches and jaw formation in the cichlid fish.
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Other chapters within the VCE Biology: Exam Prep & Study Guide course
- Developing a Scientific Investigation
- Ethical Considerations in Scientific Investigations
- Collecting Scientific Data
- Processing Experimental Results
- Communicating Scientific Ideas
- Cell Size, Structure & Function
- The Cell Membrane
- Stages of the Cell Cycle
- Cell Growth & Differentiation
- Energy Transformations in Living Things
- Functioning Systems of Living Things
- Adaptation & Regulation in Living Things
- Understanding Biodiversity
- Ecosystem Relationships & Populations
- Asexual & Sexual Reproduction
- Genomes, Genes & Alleles
- Chromosomes & Chromosome Disorders
- Genotypes & Phenotypes
- Pedigrees & Genetic Inheritence
- Cellular Membranes & Structures
- Nucleic Acids & Proteins
- Gene Structure & Regulation
- Understanding Enzymes
- Photosynthesis Overview
- Cellular Respiration Overview
- Cellular Signals
- Antigens & Immune Response
- Immunity & the Immune System
- Genetics & Populations
- Biodiversity Over Time
- Human Evolution
- DNA Manipulation
- Biological Knowledge & Society
- VCE Biology Flashcards