About This Chapter
Reproductive Sequence - Chapter Summary
This chapter begins by teaching you the definitions and processes involved in fertilization and zygote formation. Video lessons continue educating you on topics that include:
- The three stages of labor (dilation, expulsion and placental)
- Cell cleavage and oocyte activation
- The structure and function of the fetus and placenta
- Yolk sac, amniotic fluid and amnion
- Fetal development
You will end this chapter by learning about C-sections and other types of delivery methods. The chapter delivers content through short video lessons that are easy to digest. We bundle our video lessons with supplementary quizzes that allow you to identify your strengths and weaknesses. You can also use your quiz results to decide if you're ready to correctly answer reproductive sequence questions when sitting for the MCAT's biological sciences section.
Reproductive Sequence Objectives
According to the MCAT's reproductive sequence test objectives, you must be familiar with various concepts regarding:
- The reproductive system
- Developmental mechanisms
On top of sitting for the biological sciences section and an optional trial section, you must also answer questions on verbal reasoning and physical sciences sections. On the biological sciences section, you have a total of 70 minutes to answer 52 multiple-choice questions. You can expect to answer questions based on seven sets of reading passages, as well as 13 individual questions. There are roughly four to seven questions that follow each reading passage.
1. Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes
Follow the male's sperm and the female's egg on their way to meet each other in this lesson that takes you through the process of fertilization in humans. Learn about the obstacles the sperm must get through before it can fertilize the egg.
2. Fertilization: Oocyte Activation & Cell Cleavage
When is the exact moment of fertilization? Learn the answer in this lesson. We'll look at what happens after the sperm penetrates the outer layers of the oocyte during the process of fertilization.
3. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
4. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
5. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
6. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
7. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
8. External Genital Development in Males and Females
The developed genitals of a male look much different than the developed genitals of a female. However, they both grow from identical sets of tissues. Learn more about external genital development and find out how and when the tissue changes.
9. Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages & Timeline
We all know it takes 9 months for the baby to develop inside the mother's womb, but have you ever thought about how or when all those different organs and systems appear? When does the fetal heart start beating or the brain develop? Find out in this lesson covering the first trimester of pre-natal development.
10. Second Trimester Fetal Development
The growth and development of a baby is an amazingly detailed and complex process. It starts with a ball of cells, which grows all the way to a full grown, eight pound baby in nine months! In this lesson, learn about what happens during the second trimester of pregnancy.
11. Third Trimester Fetal Development
This is it - the last step, the last few months before the birth of a baby! Learn about the changes the developing fetus goes through during the third and final trimester.
12. The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion & Placental
You may think of the process of labor and childbirth as one long event, but it is actually divided into different stages. Learn about each of the three stages of labor in this lesson.
13. Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery
How does a mother's body know when it is time to give birth? How does the labor process begin and end? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson on the hormones involved in childbirth.
14. What is a C-Section? - Procedure, Types & Delivery
Do you know what happens when something goes wrong during the birthing process? You may have heard about C-sections, but do you know why they are performed - or how? Learn about this and more in this lesson on Cesarean sections.
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