About This Chapter
Research & Evaluation - Chapter Summary
This chapter examines the role played by various components in the use and evaluation of psychological research. You'll review topics such as interpreting a non-significant outcome, strategy implementation, threats to internal validity, and more. By the end of the chapter you'll have strengthened your hold on all of the following:
- Statistical significance
- The connection between population, sample and generalizability
- Threats to external validity
- Standardized assessments
- Distinguishing formative and summative evaluations
- The role of institutional review boards within research
These lessons include both a video and transcript of the material, allowing you to select the mode of learning best suited to your style. Attached to each lesson you'll find an interactive practice quiz you can use to measure your understanding of the content before moving on, a tool you can access as many times as you want.
1. Statistical Significance: Definition, Levels & Critical Regions
This lesson explores the basic principle of statistical significance and why it is important to understand when performing nearly any statistical test.
2. The Relationship Between Population, Sample & Generalizability
Researchers try their best to gather a sample that represents their population. But why is this important? In this lesson, we'll look at the relationship between population, sample, and generalizability in research.
3. Threats to Internal Validity I: History, Instrumentation & Subject Mortality
In research, there are many things besides the independent variable that can affect the dependent variable. In this lesson, we'll look at three of those things - history, mortality, and instrumentation - and what they mean to research.
4. Threats to Internal Validity II: Statistical Regression & Testing
If you're doing research, how do you know if one thing causes another? In this lesson, we'll look at some common threats to the internal validity of experiments, including testing effects and regression to the mean.
5. Threats to Internal Validity III: Selection, Maturation & Selection Interaction
A major goal of research is to prove that one thing causes another thing. But there are some hurdles to being able to say that. In this lesson, we'll look at three threats to internal validity: selection, maturation, and selection interaction.
6. Reactivity of Experimental Arrangements & Assessment: Threats to External Validity
The goal of research is to say something about what happens in the real world. But what happens if subjects react to the experimental conditions? In this lesson, we'll look at two reactivity threats to external validity.
7. Strategy Implementation: Plan, Process & Examples
This lesson presents the steps necessary for successful implementation of organizational strategies. It will explain how companies formulate their strategic plan, how the plan is implemented, and appropriate examples for clarification.
8. Interpreting a Non-Significant Outcome
Research can take a lot of time for the person conducting it. So what happens when the statistics show that the results are not significant? In this lesson, we'll look at what a non-significant outcome means and what it doesn't mean.
9. Standardized Assessments & Formative vs. Summative Evaluations
If you have ever attended a public school or college you have been subjected to a form of standardized assessment. These assessments serve multiple purposes and provide valuable information regarding one's abilities, understanding and potential. This lesson will introduce you to the types of standardized assessments commonly used in schools and discuss two other types of assessments: formative and summative.
10. The Importance of Institutional Review Boards in Research
If you think a researcher just runs an experiment, then you didn't know they would run the risk of losing both their position as a researcher and possibly their freedom. The importance of the Institutional Review Boards keeps them safe.
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