About This Chapter
AP Psychology: Research Methods Used in the Study of Psychology - Chapter Summary
Because psychology is a scientific field, there are certain ways that psychologists perform experiments, gather data, and analyze their findings. Get ready for questions on the AP Psychology exam as you learn about ways to set up experiments, how research is conducted, and how to make sure your experiment is reliable and valid. After gathering data, psychologists have to analyze it, which you'll learn about in terms of statistics. Because psychology deals with humans, there can be some confusing ethical questions that arise, and you'll see how deception plays a part in many psychological experiments. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Identify basic statistical data
- Describe different types of psychological research design and testing
- Compare basic and applied research
- Detail norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests
- Discuss direct and indirect measurements
- Relate standardization information related to psychological tests
- Understand the use of random assignments and samples
Our expert instructors have created a chapter that contains all you need to know about research methods in psychology. You'll find that definitions are worded in a clear, easy-to-understand way that allows you to quickly grasp concepts and move on. You can assess your knowledge of each topic by using the lesson-ending quizzes, which give you immediate feedback. Also, you can track your progress on your Dashboard as you progress through the chapter.
1. Introduction to Research Design & Statistical Analysis for Psychology
When studying human behavior, psychologists apply the principles of the scientific method to understand how the mind works. Explore an introduction to research design, discover the role of statistical analysis, and review examples of how scientific studies work in the field of psychology.
2. Types of Research Designs in Psychology
Psychologists use several different research designs to study human behavior. In this lesson, explore how psychologists use the three main types: descriptive studies, correlational studies, and experimental research.
3. Random Assignment in Psychology: Definition, Example & Methods
Random assignment is used by research psychologists studying human behavior to eliminate confounding variables. Learn the definition of random assignment in psychology and see some examples, discover methods to make random assignments in an experiment, learn some concepts related to experimental design, including dependent and independent variables, and explore what experimental and control groups are.
4. Random Sample in Psychology: Example & Definition
To shape a random sample, everyone in the population has to have the same probability of being selected. Explore the definition of a random sample in psychology through an example and take a look at its pros and cons.
5. Reliability & Validity in Psychology: Definitions & Differences
In psychology, reliability and validity are two important parameters used to ensure that a study adequately measures what is intended by the researcher. Learn about the definitions and differences of reliability and validity, and how to use their principles to ensure a psychological study stays on point.
6. Statistical Analysis for Psychology: Descriptive & Inferential Statistics
Psychologists use descriptive and inferential statistics to process the collected data and reach a conclusion that sheds light on their hypothesis. Learn about statistical analysis in psychology, explore the descriptive and inferential types of statistics, and discover how they are applied in studies.
7. Ethics in Psychological Experiments: Importance & Examples
Ethics in psychological experiments has become one of the most important aspects of any research to guarantee the consent and safety of the participants. Explore the importance of ethical standards in psychological experimentation, even when it involves animals, and find examples of how some researchers have practiced them (or not).
8. Basic Research and Applied Research: Definitions and Differences
Applied research is driven by a specific question to direct application, while basic research is fueled by curiosity and knowledge expansion. Discover the different questions each may answer and learn to recognize their uses.
9. Standardization and Norms of Psychological Tests
Standardization makes everything the same for all who participate, and norms are the results acquired from a sample of people who represent the whole. Explore intelligence testing, standardization, and norms of psychological tests.
10. Types of Assessments Used in Psychology
Psychological assessments are tests that analyze a person's abilities or personality. Explore some common types of assessments used in psychology, including projective tests, inventories, and aptitude tests.
11. Types of Tests: Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced
A test is a process used to measure a particular outcome. Learn why measurement is important in psychology and explore two major types of tests employed in psychological measurement: norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests.
12. Types of Measurement: Direct, Indirect & Constructs
Psychologists use a variety of techniques to measure psychological traits and assess an individual's behavior. Learn about different types of measurements, including direct, indirect, and constructs. Explore direct and indirect observation, and recognize how measurements can be limited.
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