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- Become familiar with the gross anatomy of the airway and lungs.
- Describe the functions of the pleural cavities and membranes.
- Explain how the ventilation muscles enable inspiration and expiration.
- Discuss how the nature of the respiratory surface makes gas exchange efficient.
- Understand how pulmonary surfactant decreases surface tension in the respiratory system and makes ventilation easier.
- Explain how partial pressure gradients enable gas exchange across the respiratory membrane.
- Describe both external and internal respiration.
- Take a look at how hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood.
- Discuss how hemoglobin binds with oxygen.
- Explain how oxygen transport is affected by temperature, pH and metabolism.
- Describe how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
- Understand how the autonomic nervous system regulates ventilation.
- Take a look at pulmonary function tests and describe how they measure lung volumes and capacities.
1. Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Conducting & Respiratory Zones
The respiratory system includes the lungs as well as other organs that help to get oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. The conducting zone of the respiratory system carries oxygen into the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. The respiratory zone is where oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of the blood.
2. Function of Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
Each lung is contained within a pleural cavity, the space between the outside of the lung and inside of the chest wall. Pleural membranes cover the outside of the lungs and line the inside of the chest wall. The lungs remain expanded when we breathe due to a vacuum effect within the pleural cavity.
3. How Ventilation Muscles Cause Inspiration and Expiration
What is ventilation? It includes both inspiration and expiration, the movement of air into and out of our lungs. In this lesson, learn about how the diaphragm contracts and relaxes and its impact on lung volume.
4. The Respiratory Surface and Gas Exchange Efficiency
The respiratory membrane includes millions of alveoli with a surface area as large as a tennis court. This large respiratory surface area, combined with other factors, makes for efficient gas exchange to meet our metabolic needs.
5. Pulmonary Surfactant Function and Ventilation
Our lungs are lined with a thin layer of water. The water creates surface tension, which makes it difficult for the lungs to expand and allow for gas exchange. Pulmonary surfactant is made by our lungs and decreases the surface tension so we can breathe.
6. Gas Exchange: Diffusion & Partial Pressure Gradients
If you've ever experienced shortness of breath on top of a mountain, this lesson is for you. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move into and out of our blood by diffusion. The rate of diffusion is determined by partial pressure gradients across the respiratory membrane in our lungs. Partial pressure is a function of both concentration and atmospheric pressure.
7. External and Internal Respiration in the Lungs: Definition & Process
This lesson explores the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide get into and out of the blood located in the lungs and in our metabolizing tissues. The partial pressure gradient for each gas determines both the direction and rate of diffusion across the respiratory membrane.
8. Gas Transport: Oxygen and Hemoglobin
Did you know that almost all of the oxygen transported in our blood is bound to hemoglobin? Hemoglobin is loaded with oxygen in the lungs and unloaded of oxygen in the metabolizing tissues. This lesson will describe how oxygen is transported in our blood.
9. Gas Transport: Cooperative Binding of Oxygen with Hemoglobin
Our cells need oxygen. Most of the oxygen is delivered to our cells bound to hemoglobin. This lesson describes how cooperative binding of hemoglobin maximizes oxygen delivery to our metabolizing tissues.
10. Gas Transport: Effect of Temperature, pH & Metabolism
Hemoglobin carries almost all the oxygen to our metabolizing tissues. This lesson discusses physiological factors that stimulate hemoglobin to unload oxygen in our tissues. For example, temperature, carbon dioxide, pH and metabolism all influence the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
11. Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
While carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product, it plays some important physiological roles as well. This lesson describes how carbon dioxide is transported in our blood, how carbon dioxide is converted into a pH buffer, and how carbon dioxide helps with oxygen transport.
12. Autonomic Breathing: How Ventilation is Regulated
Did you know that our nervous system controls our breathing? This lesson describes the basic elements of the homeostatic system responsible for balancing oxygen supply with metabolic demand.
13. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests?
Pulmonary function tests are used to measure air movement into and out of the lungs. Spirometry is the most common way to measure airflow. This lesson will describe the use of spirometry to measure lung volumes and flow rates as well as how breathing disorders are diagnosed.
14. Bronchi: Anatomy, Function & Definition
Ever wondered how air makes it from your mouth and nostrils to your lungs? Or how carbon dioxide brought to the lungs gets expelled through the oral and nasal cavities? Well, the bronchi are a key component, and in this lesson, you will learn about their role in breathing.
15. Diaphragm: Definition & Function
Learn about the diaphragm and how it functions within our bodies to carry out a very vital process. Test your knowledge on the diaphragm by taking the quiz.
16. Pott's Disease: Symptoms & Treatment
Pott's Disease has been afflicting human kind for thousands of years. Discover where this disease comes from, what to do if you get it and what your risks are of contacting it.
17. What is Carbon Dioxide? - Definition & Explanation
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas found in our atmosphere, our bodies, and many other places. Learn more about this gas and take the quiz at the end of the lesson.
18. Respiratory Cilia: Definition & Function
Cilia are short fibers on the outside of a cell that usually move the cell in its environment. Respiratory cilia differs in that it doesn't move the cell, but helps keep your lungs healthy by trapping and removing dirt, dust, and germs you inhale.
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