Ch 3: Schools of Thought - MTEL Political Science/Political Philosophy

About This Chapter

This chapter will help you prepare for the MTEL Political Science/Political Philosophy exam by helping you improve your understanding of the different approaches to political theory, different types of political ideologies and important documents that outlined historical political systems.

Schools of Thought - MTEL Political Science/Political Philosophy - Chapter Summary

These lessons have been put together help you study the different ways political theory can be approached, some of the major political ideologies and a few of the documents that outline some of the most influential, historical political systems. Each lesson is taught by an expert instructor and is mobile device compatible so that you may have an effective and portable way to review:

  • Differences between normative and empirical approaches to political theory
  • Different ideologies of liberalism, conservatism and libertarianism
  • Similarities and differences between communism and socialism
  • History and philosophy of anarchism, fascism and feminism
  • Significant movements in the history of political thought
  • U.S. democratic ideals and important U.S. historical documents
  • Works and impact of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and Justinian
  • Impact of other influential leaders such as Sun Tzu, St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas

To fortify your retention of the information presented in these lessons, read the lesson transcripts. Following each lesson, test your understanding of the material presented in it by completing its lesson quiz. With these quizzes, you should be able to identify topics you don't understand, and then use video tags to return to and study the parts of the lessons that explained them. Once you've completed all of the lessons and quizzes of this chapter, take the practice chapter exam to test your overall understanding of the different schools of political thought.

Schools of Thought - MTEL Political Science/Political Philosophy Objectives

Individuals wanting to teach high school political science classes in the state of Massachusetts need to take the Massachusetts Tests for Educator Licensure (MTEL) Political Science/Political Philosophy exam to demonstrate their knowledge of political science and political philosophy. Completing this exam involves answering 100 multiple-choice questions and two open-response questions in a four-hour testing session. You can expect 15% of these questions to test your understanding of political philosophy and to include questions about the historical philosophers and their schools of thought.

20 Lessons in Chapter 3: Schools of Thought - MTEL Political Science/Political Philosophy
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Approaches to Political Theory: Normative and Empirical

1. Approaches to Political Theory: Normative and Empirical

Theories attempt to explain the world around us. In this lesson, you'll learn about political theory. An overview of the normative and empirical approaches to political theory will also be examined. A short quiz follows.

What Is a Political Ideology?

2. What Is a Political Ideology?

Nearly every opinion on the appropriateness or inappropriateness of government policy, ranging from welfare to gun control, is a reflection of a person's political ideology. In this lesson, you learn about political ideology and its importance.

Liberalism: History, Ideology, and Influence

3. Liberalism: History, Ideology, and Influence

Liberalism is one of the great political traditions of the Western world and the dominant political ideology in the United States. In this lesson, you'll learn about the history of liberalism, its major tenants and its influence.

Conservatism: History, Ideology, and Influence

4. Conservatism: History, Ideology, and Influence

Conservatism is one of the major political philosophies of the Western world. In this lesson, you'll learn about its major tenets, its history and its influence. You'll also have a chance to take a short quiz after the lesson.

Libertarianism: History and Philosophy

5. Libertarianism: History and Philosophy

If you hold liberty above all other values, you might just be a libertarian. In this lesson, you'll learn about libertarianism, including what it is, its general principles and its history. A short quiz follows.

Communism vs. Socialism: Similarities & Differences

6. Communism vs. Socialism: Similarities & Differences

People often confuse socialism and communism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the differences and similarities between each of these theories. You'll also have a chance to take a short quiz after the lesson.

Anarchism: History and Philosophy

7. Anarchism: History and Philosophy

Some form of government has been around for the entire period of recorded human history. However, some people don't think government is necessary. In this lesson, you'll learn about anarchism, its philosophy and its history.

Fascism: History, Ideology, and Influence

8. Fascism: History, Ideology, and Influence

Fascism is a political ideology that literally wreaked havoc across the globe in the first part of the 20th century. In this lesson, you'll learn about what fascism is, its history and its influence. A short quiz follows.

Feminism: History, Ideology, and Impact in Politics

9. Feminism: History, Ideology, and Impact in Politics

Feminism was one of the great political and social movements of the 19th and 20th century. In this lesson, you'll learn about feminism, its ideology, some of its important history and its political impact.

Significant Movements in the History of Political Thought

10. Significant Movements in the History of Political Thought

Want to know how Western countries went from being ruled by absolute monarchs to having democracies? This lesson explains some of the major historical developments in political thought.

U.S. Historical Documents & Democratic Ideals

11. U.S. Historical Documents & Democratic Ideals

While much of what makes America is an idea, that doesn't mean that there aren't plenty of concrete documents around, too. This lesson tells the story of four of those documents.

Plato's 'Apology': Summary & Concepts

12. Plato's 'Apology': Summary & Concepts

Learn about the life of Socrates from the account of his trial, recorded by Plato. Consider how Socrates refuted the charges against him using the same approach he took to his craft.

Plato's 'Crito': Summary & Concepts

13. Plato's 'Crito': Summary & Concepts

In this lesson you will learn about the arguments presented in 'Crito,' a dialogue written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. In the dialogue, Socrates debates issues of justice with his friend Crito.

The Republic by Plato: Summary & Explanation

14. The Republic by Plato: Summary & Explanation

What is justice? Is it a concept based on the behavior of humans individually, or is it an all-encompassing concept without variation for all mankind? This lesson reviews what Socrates and friends had to say about justice in ''The Republic.''

The Impact of Aristotle's Political Philosophy

15. The Impact of Aristotle's Political Philosophy

Aristotle was one of the most influential scholars in human history, and he contributed to dozens of academic disciplines. Explore his impact on political philosophy, and test your understanding with a brief quiz.

Cicero: History & Philosophy

16. Cicero: History & Philosophy

This lesson recounts the life and accomplishments of Cicero. We follow his political career through the collapse of the Roman Republic. We take a look at his philosophy. Finally we examine his legacy in western civilization.

Justinian's Code of Law and Roman Emperors After Constantine

17. Justinian's Code of Law and Roman Emperors After Constantine

This lesson will highlight the emperors after Constantine. It will specifically explore the reign of Justinian and the famous Justinian code of law. It will also discuss the Apostate and the battle of Adrianople.

Sun Tzu's The Art of War: Summary & Quotes

18. Sun Tzu's The Art of War: Summary & Quotes

With all the advances in video game graphics, bloodshed has certainly become an art form, but today we're getting back to basics with ''The Art of War''. In this lesson, you'll find a synopsis of Master Sun's work, along with some memorable quotes.

St. Augustine's City of God

19. St. Augustine's City of God

This lesson explores the life of St. Augustine and one his most famous works, The City of God. As we explore this work, we'll highlight Rome's disdain for the Christian faith and Augustine's argument against Rome's religious position.

St. Thomas Aquinas' Treatise on Law

20. St. Thomas Aquinas' Treatise on Law

St. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th Century theologian, philosopher and priest. In his 'Treatise on Law,' Aquinas explored the origins of law. This lesson briefly explains Aquinas' 'Treatise on Law.'

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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