About This Chapter
Scientific Experimentation in Chemistry - Chapter Summary
By going through these lessons on scientific experimentation in chemistry, you can boost your understanding of how to develop a scientific hypothesis, evaluate data, draw logical conclusions from experimental data, and generalize findings to a broader audience. You can also review how to identify and interpret independent and dependent variables. After completing the chapter, you should feel confident and ready to:
- Discuss scientific ways of thinking
- Explain how scientific observations lead to scientific questioning
- List steps involved in the scientific method
- Define experimental design in science
- Explain how using the right tools for scientific tests can save money
- Describe the benefits of gathering information from a subset of a larger group
- Provide an example of a cause and effect relationship
- Identify reasons for inconsistent experiment results and sources of error
Each lesson is concise but informative, with videos lasting about eight minutes on average. A brief quiz is available for each lesson to see how much you understand scientific experimentation in chemistry. We also offer full written transcripts of the videos just in case you prefer text-based learning.
1. Scientific Ways of Thinking
Are you interested in becoming a scientist? Science is all about gaining knowledge by asking good questions, making observations, testing your ideas and drawing conclusions. With a little practice, you can learn to think like a scientist.
2. How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning
Scientific observations are a major component of the scientific process because they lead scientists to ask questions about the world around them. These questions may then be refined with continued observation, or they may be tested through experimentation.
3. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples
The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.
4. Experimental Design in Science: Definition & Method
What are the requirements of a scientific experiment? How do scientists turn hypotheses into theories and laws? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson on the design of scientific experiments.
5. Developing a Scientific Hypothesis
This video describes how to create a hypothesis and includes the three main things needed to create a strong hypothesis. You'll learn how to make a clear statement that can be both tested and measured.
6. Identifying & Interpreting Independent & Dependent Variables
Scientists answer questions by performing experiments that have an independent variable, a dependent variable and at least one control variable. By controlling, adjusting and measuring these variables, scientists find answers to their questions.
7. Using Appropriate Tools for Scientific Tests & Data Collection
A properly run experiment depends on using the right tools, both for data collection and analysis. In the end, it will save you time, money and frustration to spend some time planning out which tools are most appropriate for your work.
8. Sampling Techniques In Scientific Investigations
We can learn a lot by gathering information from a small subset of a larger group. By sampling this smaller group, scientists can save time and money while still gaining a good understanding of the population as a whole.
9. Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error
The data you present as a scientist needs to be as accurate, precise and error-free as possible. In this lesson, we'll discuss what each of these terms means, as well as how error is introduced into measurements and other data collection.
10. Cause and Effect Relationship: Definition & Examples
This lesson explores the relationship between cause and effect and teaches you about the criteria for establishing a causal relationship, the difference between correlation and causation, and more.
11. Generalization & External Validity
The point of research is to be able to generalize findings to the world at large. In this lesson, we'll look at three types of generalizing that make up external validity: across subjects, from procedures to constructs, and beyond the lab.
12. Identifying Potential Reasons for Inconsistent Experiment Results
Repeating an experiment helps ensure that you designed and implemented it correctly. But what if you don't get the same results each time? In this lesson, we'll explore potential reasons for this and how you might avoid it in the future.
13. Identifying Sources of Unavoidable Experimental Error
Good data are essential for any experiment. But no matter how hard you try, error in your data is unavoidable. In this lesson, you'll learn about the types of unavoidable experimental error to be on the lookout for and how to reduce their occurrence in your data.
14. Drawing Logical Conclusions from Experimental Data
Experimental results are what scientists like to share with each other, but it's important to understand what those data mean. We do this in the final step of the experimental process, when we draw meaningful conclusions from the results we obtained.
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Other chapters within the HSC Chemistry: Exam Prep & Syllabus course
- Chemistry Lab Equipment & Safety
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- Scientific Research in Chemistry
- Overview of the Chemistry of the Earth
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- Properties of Earth Materials
- Metals Overview
- The Periodic Table Overview
- Measuring Amounts of Reactants
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- Solubility of Water
- Specific Heat of Water
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- Fossil Fuel Products
- Understanding Biomass Research
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- Radioactivity in Chemistry
- Indicators in the Acidic Environment
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- Overview of Acids
- Acid & Base Definitions
- Principles of Esterification
- Chemical Monitoring & Management
- Chemical Monitoring in the Environment
- Industrial Chemistry Overview
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- Biochemistry of Movement
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- Forensic Chemistry Overview
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