About This Chapter
Scientific Method & Reasoning - Chapter Summary
The video lessons you can watch when you go through this chapter will cover all of the major points on the scientific method and scientific reasoning. You will benefit from each lesson's clear explanations and helpful examples, as well as the specific expertise of each lesson instructor.
The chapter will provide you with a comprehensive overview of how scientific reasoning works as a whole, and then get into specific ways in which scientists devise experiments and test hypotheses. You will learn about the different kinds of reasoning used in scientific research and how you can think more scientifically when observing the world. Some of the topics you will learn about in this chapter are:
- How to think scientifically
- The importance of scientific observations
- The steps, terminology and examples of the scientific method
- Occam's Razor
- How to test hypotheses
When watching the videos, you can use the convenient video tags to find the moments in each video corresponding to the topic's main points. If you would prefer a physical copy of each lesson, the chapter also provides you with compete video transcripts. Finally, use the practice quizzes and final chapter exam to see how well you understand some of the chapter's main points.
1. Scientific Ways of Thinking
Are you interested in becoming a scientist? Science is all about gaining knowledge by asking good questions, making observations, testing your ideas and drawing conclusions. With a little practice, you can learn to think like a scientist.
2. How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning
Scientific observations are a major component of the scientific process because they lead scientists to ask questions about the world around them. These questions may then be refined with continued observation, or they may be tested through experimentation.
3. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples
The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.
4. Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle
This lesson will explain the principle of Occam's razor, why the word razor is a part of it, and a couple of examples of its application: one from daily life and another one from science.
5. Hypothesis Testing: Comparing the Null & Alternative Hypothesis
This lesson explores the process of comparing the null and the alternative hypothesis, as well as how to differentiate between the two after your testing is done.
6. Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error
The data you present as a scientist needs to be as accurate, precise and error-free as possible. In this lesson, we'll discuss what each of these terms means, as well as how error is introduced into measurements and other data collection.
7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples
This lesson explores the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in the form of psychological experiments. In addition to defining these terms, the lesson gives examples to explain how this reasoning is applied.
8. Drawing Logical Conclusions from Experimental Data
Experimental results are what scientists like to share with each other, but it's important to understand what those data mean. We do this in the final step of the experimental process, when we draw meaningful conclusions from the results we obtained.
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