About This Chapter
Scientific Problem Solving - Chapter Summary
A key aspect of science is the ability to solve problems using scientific research, experimentation, and the scientific method. You can learn about this subject by reading or watching the text and video lessons included in this chapter. Lesson topics cover such areas as scientific observation, research variables, and event probability. Our instructors have extensive expertise in these areas, and they share their scientific knowledge with you in a convenient online format. Some of the specific topics you'll learn about include:
- Key components of scientific research
- How the scientific method can be iterative
- Types of research methods and writing research questions
- Surveys, interviews and case studies
- Experimental design methods
- Independent and dependent variables
- Experimental groups
- Probability of dependent and independent events
- Non-probability and probability sampling
- Deductive and inductive reasoning
- Relationship between scientific observation and questioning
- Challenging scientific theory with observation
After completing each lesson, you can use the corresponding practice quiz to ensure that you have properly understood that particular scientific problem-solving topic. Once you complete the entire chapter, you can test your understanding of this subject area by taking the chapter exam. Use your personal Dashboard to keep track of your progress through the course and see what areas you've mastered.
1. What is Scientific Research?
This lesson will discuss important components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, statistical significance, and more!
2. The Iterative Nature of the Scientific Method
The scientific method is a process of steps that scientists follow, but as you move through them you may want to repeat or revisit specific ones. In this way, we can see how both the scientific method and its components are iterative.
3. What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?
This lesson will go over some important research methods, including observation, correlation, and experimentation, as well as examples of each type of methodology.
4. Writing Research Questions: Purpose & Examples
What is a research question, and why is it important to get it right? This lesson will explore one way to write a research question, which guides a researcher in designing his or her experiment.
5. Surveys, Interviews, and Case Studies
Researchers often have to decide how to collect data for their research. Should they ask people questions or observe them directly? This lesson will differentiate between three methods of data collection: surveys, interviews, and case studies.
6. Experimental Design in Science: Definition & Method
What are the requirements of a scientific experiment? How do scientists turn hypotheses into theories and laws? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson on the design of scientific experiments.
7. Identifying & Interpreting Independent & Dependent Variables
Scientists answer questions by performing experiments that have an independent variable, a dependent variable and at least one control variable. By controlling, adjusting and measuring these variables, scientists find answers to their questions.
8. Experimental Group: Definition & Explanation
An experimental group is used in an experiment to test a variable. It is the group to which the test variable is administered. Learn more about how an experimental group works in this lesson, and assess your knowledge with a quiz at the end.
9. Probability of Independent and Dependent Events
Sometimes probabilities need to be calculated when more than one event occurs. These types of compound events are called independent and dependent events. Through this lesson, we will look at some real-world examples of how to calculate these probabilities.
10. Issues in Probability & Non-Probability Sampling
Choosing a sample is an important part of research. The two methods of sampling both come with their own set of issues. In this lesson, we'll look at the issues with probability and non-probability sampling.
11. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples
This lesson explores the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in the form of psychological experiments. In addition to defining these terms, the lesson gives examples to explain how this reasoning is applied.
12. How Scientific Observations Lead to Scientific Questioning
Scientific observations are a major component of the scientific process because they lead scientists to ask questions about the world around them. These questions may then be refined with continued observation, or they may be tested through experimentation.
13. How Observations Can Challenge Existing Scientific Theory
New observations can contradict existing scientific theories. This lesson will explain what happens when new evidence demonstrates that an existing theory is incomplete or incorrect.
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Other chapters within the High School Liberal Arts & Sciences: Help & Review course
- Basic Mathematical Logic
- Mathematical Representations
- Numerical, Geometric & Algebraic Relationships
- Scientific Theories & Investigations
- Foundations of Scientific Thought
- Scientific Tests, Graphs & Data
- Effects of Humans on the Environment
- Social & Cultural Structure
- Societal & Cultural Changes
- Political Culture & Socialization
- Political Principles & Power
- Policy & Political Ideology
- Historical & Contemporary Issues & Perspectives
- Social Theories & Perspectives
- Economic Systems & Perspectives
- Religious Philosophies & Influence
- Philosophical Ideas
- Historical Research
- Visual Representations of Historical Data
- Elements of Visual & Performing Arts
- Art Forms, Movements & Periods
- Overview of Literary Genres
- Literary Elements & Analysis
- Source Material Analysis
- Critical Reasoning Analysis
- Writing Syntax & Analysis
- Reference Material Analysis
- Written Expression