About This Chapter
Self, Mind & Soul in Philosophy - Chapter Summary
Theories regarding the self, mind and soul have generated conversation and controversy since the time of the ancient Greek philosophers. In this chapter, fun lessons will teach you about some of the most well-known philosophical views on the relationship between the mind and body and human perceptions of self. Multiple-choice quizzes and a practice exam make it easy to gauge your knowledge of these views, while our Dashboard tracks your progress through this chapter and lets you submit any questions to our experts. When you've finished, you will be able to:
- Define and share philosophies on personal identity
- Describe philosophical arguments related to the mind and body
- Detail the ideas of Socrates, Plato and Augustine regarding the immortal soul
- Outline Eastern views on the existence and nature of the self
- Share Rene Descartes' views on the self and consciousness
- Summarize John Locke's perspective on personal identity
- Discuss David Hume on the lack of self and Immanuel Kant's metaphysics of the self
- Explain how Gilbert Ryle theorized the self and behavior
- Provide details about Paul Churchland's theories of the self as the brain
- Detail Maurice Merleau-Ponty's perspective on the self as embodied subjectivity
1. What Is Personal Identity? - Definition, Philosophy & Development
This lesson explores philosophies of personal identity and digs into several key theories on this topic. You will think about questions of human existence that have been debated throughout history and are still debated today.
2. The Mind-Body Problem in Philosophy
This lesson will highlight the philosophical arguments concerning the mind and the body. It will define dualism and materialism as well as citing the works of Descartes, Ryle, and Churchland.
3. The Immortal Soul: Ideas of Socrates, Plato & Augustine
This lesson will explore the concept of the soul as an immortal object. In doing so, it will highlight the theories of Socrates, Plato, and Augustine. It will also define dualism.
4. Existence & Nature of the Self in Eastern Philosophy
Are we all different and independent, or are all people part of one whole? In this lesson, we'll examine what Eastern philosophy and religion, including Hinduism and Buddhism, believe about the self.
5. The Self According to Rene Descartes
This lesson will discuss Rene Descartes's ideas about the self and consciousness. In doing this, we will define dualism and discuss the critiques offered by Gilbert Ryle.
6. John Locke on Personal Identity
This lesson explains John Locke's theories on personal identity. In doing so, it highlights the prince and pauper argument as well as the day man and night man theory.
7. David Hume & the Lack of Self
This lesson will discuss David Hume's lack of self concept. In doing this, it will explore his assertions about impressions versus ideas as well as his famous bundle theory.
8. Immanuel Kant's Metaphysics of the Self
This lesson will focus on Kant's views of the self. It will highlight empiricism and rationalism and Kant's critiques of both. In addition, it will define apperception and representation.
9. Self & Behavior According to Gilbert Ryle
This lesson will explain the theories of Gilbert Ryle as they pertain to self and behavior. We'll highlight his idea of the ghost in the machine, as well as category mistakes.
10. The Self as the Brain According to Paul Churchland
This lesson will explain Paul Churchland's theories about the mind and the brain. In doing so, it will highlight dualism and materialism as well as eliminative materialism.
11. Merleau-Ponty: The Self as Embodied Subjectivity
This lesson will explore Maurice Merleau-Ponty's views on perception, action, and self. It will also highlight his critiques of rationalism and empiricism.
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Other chapters within the Philosophy 101: Intro to Philosophy course
- Introduction to Philosophy & Logic
- Types of Fallacies
- Free Will & Determinism
- God in Philosophy
- Religion & Philosophy
- Reality in Philosophy
- Philosophy in Science
- Intro to Epistemology
- Ancient Epistemology
- Modern Epistemology
- Contemporary Epistemology
- Political Philosophy
- Philosophy & Social Justice
- Studying for Philosophy 101