About This Chapter
Shaping the Earth's Surface - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The earth's topography can be reshaped through a variety of methods, including erosion and deposition. In the lessons of this chapter, our instructor shares her knowledge of how important landforms are created. You'll look at the formation of stream valleys, shorelines and rivers. Lessons also explore how natural events like volcanoes and earthquakes can alter natural habitats. When you finish this chapter, you'll have an understanding of:
- The ways topography is reshaped
- Effects of erosion and deposition
- Formation of stream valleys and rivers
- Dynamic characteristics of shorelines and beaches
- Ways that natural events and disasters can change habitats
|What Is Topography and How Is Topography Reshaped?||Explore how topography is reshaped by the weathering of rock and soil as well as the transportation and deposition of sediment.|
|Effect of Erosion and Deposition on Landforms||Examine the effect of erosion and deposition on landforms.|
|How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape||Correctly interpret a landform diagram's depiction of the geological progression of a landscape.|
|The Formation of Stream Valleys||Analyze how processes like erosion and deposition can form stream valleys.|
|Characteristics of Shorelines and Beaches||Outline the main geological characteristics of shorelines and beaches.|
|Beaches as Dynamic Systems||Explain the dynamic processes at work on a beach, in which sand is supplied by rivers and moved along the coast by the action of waves.|
|How Rivers and Streams Affect the Earth's Surface||Understand how rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode, transport sediment, change course and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns.|
|How Natural Events Change Habitats||Look at how natural events like earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and floods can change human and wildlife habitats.|
1. What Is Topography and How Is Topography Reshaped?
Topography is the study of the shape of the Earth's surface. Learn what topography is and explore the forces that reshape the land, including mechanical weathering, chemical weathering, erosion, the deposition of sediment, and natural disasters.
2. Effect of Erosion and Deposition on Landforms
Erosion and deposition affect landforms through the movement of broken-down rock from place to place, and the laying down of broken rock. Explore the process and differences between mechanical and chemical weathering and learn about landforms and how erosion and deposition affect landforms.
3. How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape
A landform diagram provides a window into the past, present, and future of our shared planet. Using the key ideas of uniformitarianism, the law of original horizontally, the law of superposition, crosscutting relations, and unconformities, learn to deduce the progression of a landscape, just like a geologist.
4. The Formation of Stream Valleys
A stream valley is an elongated depression in the ground with water flowing at the lowest point. Learn what a stream valley is and explore how water, time, and erosion help form them.
5. Beaches as Dynamic Systems
Beaches can be viewed as dynamic systems that are constantly changing as a result of oceanic waves and the movement of sediment. Learn about the formation of beaches, the significance of longshore drift, and how rivers/streams supply sand to beaches.
6. How Rivers and Streams Affect the Earth's Surface
Two of the ways primary ways rivers and streams affect the Earth's surface are through soil erosion and flooding. Learn the difference between a river and a stream and how they are formed, how rivers can create new landforms, the benefits of floodplains to farmers, and the damage that can be caused by overflowing rivers and streams.
7. How Natural Events Change Habitats
Natural events like earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, and floods are commonly called natural disasters but can have some positive effects on the habitats of animals, including humans. Explore examples of natural events and resulting changes to habitats, learn the pros and cons of natural events, and discover how secondary hazards like fires can damage and renew the environment.
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Other chapters within the Earth Science: Middle School course
- Earth's Spheres & Structure
- Understanding Plate Tectonics
- Understanding Earthquakes
- Understanding Volcanoes
- Rock Deformation & Mountain Building
- Thermal Energy
- Energy in the Earth System
- Ecology & Ecosystems
- Earth's Energy Resources
- Earth's Material Resources
- Earth Science Investigation & Experimentation