About This Chapter
Social Change Over Time
It's pretty obvious that over time society changes. For example, in the 1800s, it would have been scandalous for a proper lady to wear pants, but now most women wear pants and nobody bats an eye. These changes happen because of various reasons that you will learn in this chapter. By the time you have completed it, you will know about:
- Population change, including definitions and explanations of demography, fertility, crude birth rate, mortality, death rate, infant mortality rate, life expectancy, migration and population growth
- The historical evolution of society from rural to urban, including a brief history of this change in both Europe and the U.S.
- Issues relevant to the relationship between society and the environment, including the environmental deficit, shortages of land and clean water, declining rain forests and global warming
- Crowd types- casual, conventional, expressive and acting - and theories on crowd behavior
- Types of mass behavior, such as mass behavior, rumor, gossip, propaganda, fashion fads, mass hysteria and moral panic
- Social movement theories, including deprivation theory, mass-society theory, culture theory and resource-mobilization theory and stages - emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization and decline
Our engaging video lessons are designed to help you learn the material in an efficient manner. Each lesson is taught by a subject matter expert and edited by a video professional. Thanks for watching!
1. Migration from Rural to Urban Settings in Europe and the U.S.: History and Effects
In this lesson, we will discuss some of the causes for people to migrate from a rural setting to an urban setting in Europe and in America. We will also learn the difference between immigration and emigration.
2. Historical Growth of Cities: Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft, Gentrification & the Concentric Zone Model
In this lesson, we will discuss the contributions to classifying social change of two social scientists: Ferdinand Tonnies and Ernest W. Burgess. We will study concepts that include gemeinschaft, gesellschaft and gentrification.
3. Population Growth: Demographic Transition and Malthusian Theories
Population growth is not as simple as watching the total number of humans rise each year. This lesson explores how the experts actually calculate population growth rates, and how different theories explain why various regions of the world experience population growth changes in such different ways.
4. Population Change from Aging, Death, and Migration
Fertility, mortality and migration are principal determinants of how a population can change, and they are at the very core of demographic studies. In this lesson, we will discuss how a population can change from fertility (birth), mortality (death), and migration.
5. Demographic Changes from Fertility and Birthrates
Demographers focus on specific indicators of change in human populations. Two of the most important indicators are birth and death rates, or fertility and mortality. In this lesson, we will discuss the definitions of demography, fertility and mortality and their impact on a population.
6. Environmental Impact: Society's Relationship and Issues
In this lesson, we will discuss global warming, pollution and loss of habitat. Learn how the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests lead to global warming by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere.
7. Crowd Behavior: Contagion, Convergence & Emergent Norm Theory
Why do people act differently in crowds than they do individually? In this lesson, we will discuss three different theories to explain crowd behavior: contagion theory, convergence theory, and emergent norm theory.
8. Mass Hysteria & Moral Panic: Definitions, Causes & Examples
What do the fabled chicken little and the band KISS have in common? In this lesson we will discuss mass hysteria and moral panic by using specific examples of each and comparing the causes of these phenomena.
9. Collective Behavior: Crowd Types, Mobs & Riots
Collective behavior refers to events that suddenly emerge. These events do not conform to rules or laws but instead are shaped based on the issue at hand. This lesson discusses the forms of collective behavior: crowds, mobs and riots.
10. Types of Mass Behavior: Definitions & Examples
Mass behavior is a type of social behavior. There are many different types of mass behavior. In this lesson, we will define and describe mass hysteria, rumors, gossip, fads, and fashions as examples of mass behavior.
11. Social Movement: Theories and Motives
In this lesson, we will define what social movements are and discuss why they develop. We'll cover the deprivation theory, the mass-society theory and the structure strain theory, which are three theories that sociologists use to explain social movements.
12. Social Movement Stages: Emergence, Coalescence, Bureaucratization & Decline
Although social movements around the world differ from each other in many ways, they all generally go through a life cycle marked by the progressive stages of emergence, coalescence, bureaucratization, and decline. In this lesson we will discuss the four stages of social movements.
13. Social Movement Definitions: Alternative, Redemptive, Reformative & Revolutionary
Social movements can occur at the individual level or the societal level and can advocate for either minor or radical changes. This lesson will cover four kinds of social movements: alternative, redemptive, reformative, and revolutionary.
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Other chapters within the Sociology 101: Intro to Sociology course
- Introduction to Sociology: The Basics
- Key Sociology Theorists
- Sociology Research Methods
- Foundations of Society
- Theories of Individual Social Development
- Social Groups & Organizations
- Diversity in Society
- Sex and Gender in Society
- Race and Ethnicity in Society
- Aging in Society
- Economics and Politics
- Social Institutions
- Studying for Sociology 101