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Ch 49: Social Groups & Organizations - ORELA Middle Grades Social Science

About This Chapter

Watch comprehensive video lessons and read brief texts to refresh your knowledge of social groups and organizations as you study for the ORELA Middle Grades Social Science assessment. Take short quizzes to gauge your readiness to take the test.

Social Groups & Organizations - ORELA Middle Grades Social Science - Chapter Summary

There's nothing better than feeling prepared to take a certification test like the ORELA Middle Grades Social Science assessment. This chapter aids the process by helping you explore social groups and organizations to ensure you're ready to:

  • Identify various types of social groups as well as styles and types of leadership
  • Define and discuss social conformity and groupthink
  • Describe social loafing and social facilitation
  • Share the differences between dyad and triad, in-groups and out-groups
  • Explain three types of formal organization
  • Discuss verstehen and the rationalization of society
  • Provide insight into George Ritzer and the McDonaldization of society

You can watch the lessons in any sequence that helps you fully absorb the concepts covered in this chapter. If you need to revisit specific portions of any video, take advantage of timelines that allow you to identify and skip to key topics within the lessons.

Social Groups & Organizations - ORELA Middle Grades Social Science Chapter Objectives

In Oregon, the NES Middle Grades Social Science assessment has replaced the ORELA assessment. Educators must pass the test to secure or enhance licensure enabling them to teach social science to students in middle grades. The computer-based test consists of 150 multiple-choice questions exploring topics ranging from history to economics. Lessons in this chapter cover topics found in the geography and culture content domain, which constitutes about 19% of the test.

You can enhance your retention by reviewing the lessons as transcripts that feature easily identifiable vocabulary words. Lesson quizzes are also available with questions similar in format and content to those on the actual test. If you have any questions about a lesson topic, submit them to our experts. Taking these steps can improve your chances of earning a passing score on the test of 227 or higher.

9 Lessons in Chapter 49: Social Groups & Organizations - ORELA Middle Grades Social Science
Types of Social Groups: Primary, Secondary and Reference Groups

1. Types of Social Groups: Primary, Secondary and Reference Groups

The study of social groups is a main focus of many sociologists. In this lesson, we define social groups and differentiate between several different types including primary, secondary, and reference groups.

Leadership Styles and Types: Authoritarian, Laissez-Faire & Democratic

2. Leadership Styles and Types: Authoritarian, Laissez-Faire & Democratic

Most of us are members of many different social groups, and several of those groups have leaders. In this lesson, we define and discuss both instrumental and expressive leadership in groups. We also cover three leadership decision-making styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.

Social Conformity Definition: Normative vs. Informational

3. Social Conformity Definition: Normative vs. Informational

Social conformity and obedience are two very powerful phenomenons in human behavior and sociology. In this lesson, we discuss the two types of social conformity and differentiate between conformity and obedience. We also discuss two famous experiments by Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram.

Groupthink: Definition & Examples

4. Groupthink: Definition & Examples

Some groups are quick to make decisions to maintain cohesion, but this can be a critical mistake to make. This lesson explains the concept of groupthink using the Challenger explosion as an example.

Social Loafing & Social Facilitation: Definition and Effects of Groups

5. Social Loafing & Social Facilitation: Definition and Effects of Groups

Do you prefer to work in a group or by yourself? Why? Working in a group certainly has a number of advantages and disadvantages. In this lesson, we discuss three phenomena that can occur as a result of working in groups: groupthink, social loafing, and social facilitation.

Social Groups: Dyad and Triad & In-Groups and Out-Groups

6. Social Groups: Dyad and Triad & In-Groups and Out-Groups

How big are your social groups? How do you decide who to include in those groups? In this lesson, we discuss how group size can affect group dynamics and relationships. We also discuss group membership and differentiate between in-groups and out-groups.

Formal Organization Structure: Utilitarian, Normative & Coercive

7. Formal Organization Structure: Utilitarian, Normative & Coercive

Our modern society is filled with groups of people that range from small families to giant corporations. In this lesson, we discuss the characteristics that must be present in order for a group to be considered a formal organization. We also discuss the differences between coercive, utilitarian, and normative organizations.

Max Weber: Verstehen and the Rationalization of Society

8. Max Weber: Verstehen and the Rationalization of Society

Max Weber's work has had a profound impact on sociology. In this lesson, we define and discuss his theory of rationalization and how it has changed social groups and society as a whole over time. We also discuss Weber's other related theories of Verstehen and the iron cage.

George Ritzer and the McDonaldization of Society: Definition and Principles

9. George Ritzer and the McDonaldization of Society: Definition and Principles

George Ritzer authored 'The McDonaldization of Society' in 1993, and it remains one of the bestselling sociology books of all time. In this lesson, we discuss his concept of McDonaldization and the four main characteristics of McDonaldization that he describes.

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Other Chapters

Other chapters within the ORELA Middle Grades Social Science: Practice & Study Guide course

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