About This Chapter
Solutions - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The word 'solutions' doesn't just mean 'answers' - in chemistry, it also refers to one substance dissolved in another. Common examples include ammonia, many prepackaged beverages, tap water and even air. With solutions all around us, it's no wonder we study them.
In these lessons, we'll give you a solid foundation for stepping into the world of solutions by looking at topics like solubility, molarity, and colligative properties as well as showing you how to do all kinds of calculations that solutions demand. After completing these lessons, you should be able to:
- Understand what solutions are
- Name several different kinds of solutions
- Explain solubility and what affects it
- Calculate molarity, molality and dilutions
- Figure out molar mass using properties of solutions
|The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition||List factors that affect the rate of dissolution and explain their application.|
|Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes||Explain how a solution is formed.|
|Solubility and Solubility Curves||Find out the solubility of a substance in water and discover what factors affect it.|
|Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration||Make concentration calculations of both molarity and molality.|
|Calculating Dilutions of Solutions||Learn how to make dilution calculations.|
|Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass||Find the molar mass of an unknown substance.|
|Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law||Explain the main colligative properties and use them in calculations.|
1. The Rate of Dissolution: Factors and Definition
Learn what dissolution is and the factors that affect the rate of dissolution, such as temperature, surface area, polarity and pressure. Learn what miscible and immiscible mean in regards to liquids.
2. Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Learn what a solution is and how it is formed. Learn how to express the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality and mass percent. Discover the differences between an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte.
3. Solubility and Solubility Curves
Learn what solubility is as well as the definitions of 'saturated,' 'unsaturated' and 'supersaturated.' Learn how to determine the solubility of a substance in water by using a solubility curve. Discover the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of liquids, solids and gases.
4. Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration
Learn what molarity and molality are and how to calculate each one. Learn that molarity is abbreviated as M and is moles of solute per liter of solution and that molality is abbreviated as m and is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
5. Calculating Dilution of Solutions
Learn what a solution is and how to properly dilute a new solution from a stock solution. Learn the dilution equation that combines molarity, the volume of stock solution and desired solution to determine how much stock solution is needed for the new solution.
6. Using Colligative Properties to Determine Molar Mass
In this lesson, we will explore the effect of colligative properties on a solution. We will learn how to calculate freezing point depression and see how it can be used to calculate the molar mass of an unknown substance.
7. Colligative Properties and Raoult's Law
Learn how vapor pressure and osmotic pressure are colligative properties. Learn Raoult's Law and how to use it to determine the vapor pressure of a solution. Learn the equation for determining osmotic pressure and how to use it to determine the molar mass of a substance.
8. Colloids: Definition, Types & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of colloids. There will be examples provided to assist you with your understanding of the topic. Also, several types of colloid solutions are provided.
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