# Ch 13: Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations

### About This Chapter

## Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Stoichiometry is a chemical science that studies the way substances are transformed into other substances by way of chemical reactions. In this chapter, use easy-to-understand explanations and illustrations to take the mystery out of this complex subject, while learning how to read and write chemical equations. You'll also learn how to perform calculations using a chemistry mole or unit of measurement. When you complete the chapter, you should be able to:

- Use a ratio to exchange one substance for another in a chemical equation
- Find the relative quantities of a gas or solution
- Understand the meaning of limiting and excess reactants
- Appreciate the difference between the theoretical and actual yields of a substance
- Calculate percent composition or how much of an element is found in a compound
- Compute a formula for a hydrate or crystalline compound

Video | Objective |
---|---|

Chemical Reactions and Balancing Equations | Observe and record chemical reactions; write and balance a chemical equation using a word equation |

Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation | Determine and write a mole ratio for two substances in a chemical equation; make mole-to-mole calculations |

Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations | Establish and compute mass-to-mass stoichiometric computations |

Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution | Establish and compute stoichiometric computations involving gases and solutions |

Limiting Reactants and Calculating Excess Reactants | Determine which reactant is limiting; calculate excess reactant amounts |

Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant | Use the given for a limiting reactant to compute ideal reaction and percentage yields |

Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas | Compute the percent composition of an element in a compound; use the given for a percent composition to determine the empirical formula for an element in a compound |

Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula from Empirical Data | Use given experimental data to calculate the formula of a hydrate |

### 1. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations

In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.

### 2. Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation

Learn what a mole ratio is and how to determine and write the mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation in this video lesson. Also, learn to make mole-to-mole calculations and solve problems involving moles of substances.

### 3. Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations

Learn how to set up and make mole to mass, mass to mole and mass to mass stoichiometric calculations. Learn how the ratios of moles helps you compare and make calculations. Learn how to relate mole ratios to molar mass.

### 4. Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution

In this lesson, learn about molar volume and how to set up and make stoichiometric calculations with gases. Then learn about solution stoichiometry and how to make stoichiometric calculations with solutions.

### 5. Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants

In this lesson, you'll learn what limiting reactant and excess reactant mean and how to determine which reactant is limiting in a chemical reaction when given the amount of each reactant. You'll also discover how to calculate the amount of product produced.

### 6. Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant

Learn what the theoretical yield, actual yield and percent yield are. Given the limiting reactant, learn how to calculate the theoretical reaction yield, which is also known as the ideal reaction yield and percentage yield.

### 7. Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas

Learn the difference between the empirical formula and chemical formula. Learn how to calculate the percent composition of an element in a compound. Learn how, if given a percent composition, to determine the empirical formula for a compound.

### 8. Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data

Learn the definition of a hydrate and an anhydrate in this lesson. Discover how, when given experimental data, you can determine the formula of a hydrate by following simple steps that include finding the moles of hydrate and anhydrate and comparing the two to write the formula.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course

- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Acids, Bases and Reactions
- Equilibrium
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry