# Ch 9: Stoichiometry

### About This Chapter

## Chemistry: Stoichiometry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

'Stoichiometry' is a big, imposing word that simply refers to a branch of chemistry that looks at chemical reactions. It's concerned with what goes into a reaction (the reactants) and what comes out (the products). Its applications are basically everywhere, even if you don't realize it - for example, how does your body sustain itself off the food you eat and the air you breathe? How do scientists manufacture drugs to cure diseases? Stoichiometry can show you the way. After these lessons, you should be able to:

- Understand how to read and write a chemical equation
- Make calculations involving moles, mass, gases and solutions
- See how to maximize reactions by analyzing ideal yields
- Pick out the different substances in a chemical compound

Video | Objective |
---|---|

Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations | Establish whether a chemical reaction occurred, then draft a chemical equation and make sure the equation is balanced. |

Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation | Analyze different substances and compare mole ratios as you run the numbers in these equations. |

Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations | Inspect the differences between masses, then write corresponding stoichiometric equations. |

Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution | Learn to make calculations involving solutions and gases. |

Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants | Examine which reactants in a chemical reaction are limiting and calculate those in excess. |

Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant | Discover ideal yields and percentage yields from a reaction. |

Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas | See what chemical compounds are made up of and determine their formulas. |

Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula from Empirical Data | Uncover the formula for a hydrate. |

### 1. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations

In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.

### 2. Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation

Learn what a mole ratio is and how to determine and write the mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation in this video lesson. Also, learn to make mole-to-mole calculations and solve problems involving moles of substances.

### 3. Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations

Learn how to set up and make mole to mass, mass to mole and mass to mass stoichiometric calculations. Learn how the ratios of moles helps you compare and make calculations. Learn how to relate mole ratios to molar mass.

### 4. Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution

In this lesson, learn about molar volume and how to set up and make stoichiometric calculations with gases. Then learn about solution stoichiometry and how to make stoichiometric calculations with solutions.

### 5. Limiting Reactants & Calculating Excess Reactants

In this lesson, you'll learn what limiting reactant and excess reactant mean and how to determine which reactant is limiting in a chemical reaction when given the amount of each reactant. You'll also discover how to calculate the amount of product produced.

### 6. Calculating Reaction Yield and Percentage Yield from a Limiting Reactant

Learn what the theoretical yield, actual yield and percent yield are. Given the limiting reactant, learn how to calculate the theoretical reaction yield, which is also known as the ideal reaction yield and percentage yield.

### 7. Calculating Percent Composition and Determining Empirical Formulas

Learn the difference between the empirical formula and chemical formula. Learn how to calculate the percent composition of an element in a compound. Learn how, if given a percent composition, to determine the empirical formula for a compound.

### 8. Hydrates: Determining the Chemical Formula From Empirical Data

Learn the definition of a hydrate and an anhydrate in this lesson. Discover how, when given experimental data, you can determine the formula of a hydrate by following simple steps that include finding the moles of hydrate and anhydrate and comparing the two to write the formula.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the Chemistry 101: General Chemistry course