About This Chapter
Stratification and Aging in Society - Chapter Summary
The video and text lessons in this chapter focus on social stratification and the social implications of aging. The videos help you review important concepts such as global stratification, social mobility and ageism. You may even learn something new about the graying of, as well as poverty in, the United States. After studying the chapter, you should be able to:
- Differentiate class and caste systems
- Define global stratification
- Identify types of social mobility
- Distinguish between relative and absolute poverty
- Explain the relationship between ingroups, outgroups and stereotypes
- List the three factors contributing to the graying of America
- Describe financial and social challenges of aging
- Discuss changes in gender roles and stereotypes over time
Our professional instructors and short video lessons bring the issues of aging and social stratification to life. The videos break down complex concepts and contain several real-world examples; they also have tags so that you can go back and re-watch major points. In addition, our lessons include transcripts and multiple-choice quizzes, which can be used to quickly check your understanding of the chapter topics.
1. Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification
Social hierarchies exist in all societies and cultures. In this lesson, we define social stratification and its characteristics. We also discuss the difference between open and closed systems, including what differentiates a caste from a class.
2. Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty
In this lesson, we define global stratification and discuss how nations are stratified. We discuss the outdated three-world model as well as the current differences between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries.
3. American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes
In this lesson, we discuss the American class system and the social stratification layers that exist within each class. We also differentiate between income and wealth and discuss how they relate to social status.
4. Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal
In our society, some individuals and families experience drastic changes in social status and lifestyle. In this lesson, we define social mobility and discuss different types, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical, and horizontal mobility.
5. Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty
Today, a significant number of Americans suffer from poverty. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty. We also examine the populations that are most at risk.
6. Ingroup vs. Outgroup: Definition and Explanation
How do the groups we belong to influence the stereotypes we hold? In this lesson, we'll examine ingroups and outgroups and their effects on stereotypes.
7. Graying of America: Birth Rate, Death Rate & Life Expectancy
The 'graying of America' is an important aging trend studied by sociologists. In this lesson, we will discuss this phenomenon and three factors that contribute to it: birth rate, death rate, and life expectancy.
8. Challenges of Aging: Retirement, Ageism & Social Isolation
There are many challenges that we face as we age. In this lesson, we discuss three of the larger challenges that have been identified by sociologists: retirement, ageism, and social isolation.
9. Gender Changes Over Time: Agency and Communion
Gender stereotypes often rely on the ways people define themselves. In this lesson, we'll look at two ways of defining oneself. We'll also study why gender differences exist and how they change over time.
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