About This Chapter
Structure and Behavior of Matter - Chapter Summary
Lessons begin by showing you the differences between chemical and physical changes as well as mixtures and pure substances. Instructors also discuss the atomic structure of elements. You can learn how protons, neutrons and electrons determine an element's mass and chemical reactivity. Also, discover the roles their valence levels play in forming covalent, ionic and polar covalent bonds. The lessons also guide you through the process of writing and balancing chemical equations for the resulting molecules and compounds.
As you progress through this chapter, you can discover the differences between acids and bases, and explore the unique characteristics of metallic and hydrogen bonds. Lessons also outline methods for distinguishing between the five types of chemical reactions and show you how to identify endothermic and exothermic reactions. Some of the key figures in the development of atomic theory are also discussed. By this chapter's end, you should be familiar with the following topics:
- Physical and chemical properties of matter
- Types of chemical bonds
- Chemical reactions and energy changes
- Compounds and solutions
- Properties of water
- Acids and bases
- Atomic theory and structure
Each lesson consists of videos and transcripts that can help you identify key terms and concepts. There are also self-assessment quizzes. Taken both before and after you watch the video presentations, these study tools can help you test your initial knowledge of the structure and behavior of matter, and then see how much of the lessons you've absorbed.
1. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
2. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
The world around us is constantly changing. Chemists put those changes into two main categories: physical changes and chemical changes. This lesson will define and provide examples of each.
3. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
4. Chemical Bonds I: Covalent
Mom always said that sharing is caring. This lesson will explore how electrons affect the chemical reactivity of atoms and specifically the merits of sharing electrons.
5. Chemical Bonds II: Ionic
Did you know that the scientific name for table salt is sodium chloride? Find out how sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form your favorite seasoning.
6. Chemical Bonds IV: Hydrogen
This lesson defines and discusses important concepts behind hydrogen bonding. You'll learn when and why these bonds occur and which atoms are often involved.
7. Chemical Bonds III: Polar Covalent
Are you confused about how you can tell what kind of bond two atoms will form? This lesson will help you understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds as well as how to predict how two atoms will interact.
8. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
9. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are like people and have different personalities? A few elements are very shy and love to be left alone. Others are very social and prefer to hang out with friends. In this lesson we will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds.
10. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
11. Acids and Bases
Have you ever wondered how we measure the acidity of liquids? Check out this lesson to see how acids and bases are measured on a pH scale and how they relate to neutral solutions, such as water.
12. Properties of Water
Why does ice float? Why can water rise on its own against gravity in a small tube? Find out how these mysterious properties of water can be explained by hydrogen bonds.
13. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
14. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
15. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
16. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
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Other chapters within the FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 (004): Test Practice & Study Guide course
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Gas Laws
- Properties of Waves
- Electricity and Magnetic Force
- Basics of Thermodynamics
- The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Electric Units
- Plate Tectonics and Dating Methods
- Cycles and Layers of the Earth
- Space Science
- Cell Biology
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Chemical Reactions of Metabolism
- Overview of Cell Division
- Biology of Genetics
- Plant Biology Overview
- Human Anatomy & Physiology Overview
- Biological Evolution & Natural Selection
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Microbiology Overview
- Ecology & Florida
- Analyzing Scientific Data
- Scientific Principles
- FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 Flashcards