Ch 4: Structure and Function of Macromolecules

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons to review the structure and function of macromolecules. Study functional groups and polymers while also strengthening your knowledge of the purposes of DNA and RNA.

Structure and Function of Macromolecules - Chapter Summary

Use this chapter's video lessons to explore macromolecules' structures and functions. Let our professional instructors refresh your memory of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The short lessons cover organic molecules, complementary base pairing in DNA and the types of RNA as well. You'll also study the 20 amino acids. Once you've finished the chapter, you should be able to:

  • List functional groups and examples of polymers
  • Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
  • Explain the characteristics and structure of amino acids
  • Understand how amino acids form peptide bonds
  • Identify higher order protein structures
  • Recognize the chemical structure of nucleic acids
  • List nitrogenous bases in DNA
  • Understand DNA's double helix structure
  • Distinguish between DNA and the types of RNA

Our video lessons are full of examples, diagrams and other visuals to help make learning about macromolecules an engaging process. The videos are usually just a few minutes long and have tags so that you can easily rewatch key points. We also provide transcripts of the videos, which may have links to other text lessons related to the material. Our self-assessment quizzes accompany all lessons and they are a great way to check your comprehension of these science topics.

12 Lessons in Chapter 4: Structure and Function of Macromolecules
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups

1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups

If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.

Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers

2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers

From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.

Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

3. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.

Structure and Function of Lipids

4. Structure and Function of Lipids

Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.

Proteins I: Structure and Function

5. Proteins I: Structure and Function

We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.

Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

6. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids

How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.

Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

7. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds

In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.

Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

8. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.

DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

9. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.

DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

10. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.

DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity

11. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity

This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.

Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

12. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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