About This Chapter
Structure and Function of Macromolecules - Chapter Summary
Use this chapter's video lessons to explore macromolecules' structures and functions. Let our professional instructors refresh your memory of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. The short lessons cover organic molecules, complementary base pairing in DNA and the types of RNA as well. You'll also study the 20 amino acids. Once you've finished the chapter, you should be able to:
- List functional groups and examples of polymers
- Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
- Explain the characteristics and structure of amino acids
- Understand how amino acids form peptide bonds
- Identify higher order protein structures
- Recognize the chemical structure of nucleic acids
- List nitrogenous bases in DNA
- Understand DNA's double helix structure
- Distinguish between DNA and the types of RNA
Our video lessons are full of examples, diagrams and other visuals to help make learning about macromolecules an engaging process. The videos are usually just a few minutes long and have tags so that you can easily rewatch key points. We also provide transcripts of the videos, which may have links to other text lessons related to the material. Our self-assessment quizzes accompany all lessons and they are a great way to check your comprehension of these science topics.
1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
3. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
4. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
5. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
6. Proteins III: Structure and Characteristics of the 20 Amino Acids
How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? It's a matter of chemistry. Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids.
7. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
8. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure
How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.
9. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
10. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
11. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
12. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
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Other chapters within the NES Biology (305): Practice & Study Guide course
- About the NES Test
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- Overview of Chemical Bonds and Reactions
- How Enzymes Work
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Overview of Cell Division
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- Mechanisms of Biological Evolution
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Requirements of Biological Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Male Reproductive System
- Female Reproductive System
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Biology: Diseases & Prevention
- Cardiovascular Disorders
- Neurological Disorders
- Common Human Disorders
- Populations and Biological Communities
- Overview of Animal Behavior
- Ecosystems and Biomes
- Biochemical Cycles
- Human Activity and the Biosphere
- NES Biology Flashcards