About This Chapter
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- Have fallen behind in understanding the components of the nervous system or the functions of ear, eye and olfactory anatomy
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- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
- Watch and learn from fun videos, reviewing as needed.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Submit questions to one of our instructors for personalized support if you need extra help.
- Verify you're ready by completing the nervous system chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What are the functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems?
- How do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems operate?
- How do sensory, afferent, efferent and motor neurons differ?
- What are some types of sensory nerves and receptors?
- How does the fight-or-flight instinct work?
- What are chemoreceptors and olfactory bulbs?
- What are the structures and functions of the eye?
- How do the retina, rods, cones and fovea work?
- What is the role of the optic and cranial nerves?
- What are the ear's external and middle structures?
- What are the functions of the inner ear?
- How do the cranial nerves of the face and mouth help us move and feel?
1. Nervous System Overview: Central & Peripheral
What happens in your nervous system when you react to stimuli? Did you know that the brain is sometimes uninvolved with reflexes? Find out the answer to these questions, and more, in this lesson on the human nervous system.
2. The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Did you know that hammerhead sharks and platypuses share a special type of sensory neuron that humans and most other animals don't have? In this lesson, you'll find out what that sensory neuron and a whole lot of others can do. You'll also learn how the nervous system is organized and the differences between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
3. The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
In this lesson, you'll learn about two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Watch as a hiker, Phil, runs away from a terrifying bear and see how these systems react to the impending danger!
4. Types of Neurons: Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent & More
There are many types of neurons in your body that help you see, smell, hear, and move. In this lesson, you'll learn more about afferent, efferent, sensory, and motor neurons.
5. Sensory Nerves: Types and Functions of Sensors and Receptors
In this lesson, we will explore what gives you the ability to sense temporary and sustained pressure, touch, and vibration. In addition, we'll touch base on certain nerves that allow you to sense the coolness of an ice cube in your mouth or the sensation of warmth on your skin.
6. Sensory Nerves and Receptors of Muscles and Tendons
Your body is able to sense its position in the environment. This is critical for movement, playing basketball, or even sitting still. Find out what this means as we explore proprioceptors, muscle spindles, and tendon organs.
7. Positive and Negative Feedback in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System
In this lesson, you'll study positive and negative feedback in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. You'll also learn why we have a fight or flight instinct and how it works.
8. The Sense of Smell: Olfactory Bulb and the Nose
How does the sense of smell relate to your eyes? Why can we smell something in the first place? These questions and many more will be answered as we look into the olfactory bulb, chemoreceptors, cranial nerve I, and the olfactory nerve.
9. The Eye and Eyesight: Large Structures
Would you be able to see anything without a lens in your eye? Does the lens change shape? Does the iris? What structure gives you your eye color? Find out all of this and about things like the ciliary muscles and the cornea as we delve into this lesson.
10. Receptors of the Back of the Eye: Retina, Rods, Cones & Fovea
Find out how we see the world in color, what rods and cones are, and how camera film fits into all of this. In addition, you'll find out what the retina is and what gives you the ability to see at night.
11. How Receptors of the Eye Conduct Information via the Optic Nerve
You will learn how your eyes are able to see the image in front of you thanks to special cells called photoreceptors. In addition, these receptors have very important proteins called rhodopsin and photopsin; and all of these things work together to transmit information to your optic nerve.
12. The Sense of Sight: Motion, Nerves and Eye Movements
Find out how cranial nerve II, cranial nerve III, cranial nerve IV, and cranial nerve VI help you see and control the movement of your eyes. You'll learn if there's a difference between those cranial nerves and that of the abducens nerve, oculomotor nerve, optic nerve, and the trochlear nerve.
13. Anatomy of the Ear's External Structures
What is the pinna? Is it the same thing as your earlobe? Does the eardrum have anything to do with the tympanic membrane? Find out as we explore all of this and other important structures involved in the sensation of hearing as sound enters your ear.
14. The Ear: Middle Structures and Hearing Functions
Find out about the malleus, incus, and stapes. You'll learn about the smallest bones in your body and find out what the ossicles are for. Finally, you'll find out how the oval window plays an important role in the transmission of sound.
15. The Inner Ear: Sense of Balance and Hearing
Learn how water is important when it comes to your inner ear, cochlea, and sense of hearing. Find out what cool names like the bony labyrinth, semicircular canals, ampulla, and vestibule mean.
16. The Ear: Hair Cells, Organ of Corti & the Auditory Nerve
In this lesson, you'll learn the most important things about cranial nerve VIII, the auditory nerve and the Organ of Corti. In addition, you'll realize that even though you may not like it, your ears are quite hairy thanks to hair cells.
17. Cranial Nerves of the Face and Mouth: Motion and Sensation Functionality
We wouldn't be able to talk, taste, chew, or swallow without the cranial nerves of our face and mouth. Find out how these nerves help us move our tongue and enjoy everything from kissing to food to conversation.
18. Cranial Nerves: The Vagus Nerve and its Functionality
Find out what the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) does in your body. While perhaps not as impressive, you'll also find out what the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) does and why it is important to the vagus nerve.
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