About This Chapter
Structure of an Atom - Chapter Summary
To practice chemistry, it's essential to have a fundamental understanding of the structure of an atom. The lessons in this chapter can help you refresh your understanding of these components. You'll learn about ions, protons, and electrons and see applications for fusion, fission, carbon dating, tracers, and imaging. The lessons in this chapter help you review the following topics:
- Electron cloud model and theory
- The shell of an electron
- Properties and charges of protons and neutrons
- The meaning of atomic number and mass number
- The formation of ions
- Electron configuration
- Radioactive isotopes
- Radioactive decay
- Methods for performing nuclear chemistry
Our instructors have worked diligently to create lessons that keep you engaged in the learning process and help you easily absorb and retain the material. You'll have access to inviting video and text lessons that help to illustrate the material. The video lessons contain a transcript to help you follow along and text lessons highlight important concepts and vocabulary for you to remember. After each lesson, take a quiz to gauge your progress. When you've completed the chapter, take the cumulative chapter exam to see how well you can apply what you've learned.
1. Electron Cloud: Definition, Model & Theory
Like the rapidly moving blades of a fan, electrons appear to occupy all of the space in an atom at once. Learn how electron location in an atom is best described by the electron cloud model and theory.
2. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
3. Protons: Definition, Charge & Mass
Protons can be found in the nucleus of every atom. While originally it had been thought that protons were a fundamental particle, recent research has shown that protons are made of quarks. This lesson will cover the properties of the proton.
4. Neutrons: Definition & Concept
Neutrons are the big guys of the atom. This lesson explains the structure of the neutron, its properties, and some of its influences on the function of the atom.
5. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
6. What Is an Ion?
Learn what an ion is and how it forms. We will look at some common ions and get to know the terms for the two types of ions. Take the quiz at the end to see how well you understand the lesson.
7. Electron Configuration: Orbital, Noble-Gas & Electron-Configuration Notation
Discover the complex ways that electrons are organized within an atom. Learn two ways to write electron configurations to show how electrons are organized. Then, test your new knowledge with a quiz.
8. Radioactive Isotope: Definition & Uses
There are over 1,000 known radioactive isotopes of elements in the periodic table. There are many applications of radioactive isotopes in various fields. In this lesson, we will learn all about radioactive isotopes and their uses.
9. Radioactive Decay: Definition, Formula & Types
In this lesson, we'll discuss radioactive decay and learn the terms parent nucleus, daughter nucleus, and half-life. We'll also examine three types of radioactive decay.
10. Fusion, Fission, Carbon Dating, Tracers & Imaging: Applications of Nuclear Chemistry
What can the sun do that we can't? How do carbon atoms 'date'? Are radioactive isotopes helpful in the medical field? The answers to these questions can be found in this lesson on the applications of nuclear chemistry.
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Other chapters within the Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 - Science Subject Concentration (5159): Practice & Study Guide course
- Scientific Inquiry & Methodology
- Scientific Data Collection & Analysis
- Science Laboratory Equipment & Safety
- Major Developments & Historical Figures in Science
- Basic Principles of Matter & Energy
- Relationships Between Matter & Energy
- Interdisciplinary Applications of Energy & Matter
- Impact of Science & Technology on the Environment
- Energy Production & Resource Use
- Science & Technology Used in Everyday Life
- Science & Public Health
- Mechanics in Physics
- Analyzing Motion & Forces
- Electricity & Magnetic Forces
- Wave Characteristics & Phenomena
- Light, Sound & Waves
- Elements & The Periodic Table
- Chemical Bonding & Simple Chemical Compounds
- Interpreting Chemical Formulas
- Matter & Phase Changes
- Balancing & Using Chemical Equations
- Acid-Base Chemistry
- Understanding Solutions & Solubility
- Structure & Function of Cells & Organelles
- Understanding Biochemistry
- Understanding Genetics
- Theory & Mechanisms of Evolution
- Hierarchical Classification of Living Things
- Plant Structure & Function
- Animal & Human Anatomy & Physiology
- Basics of Ecology
- Earth's Surface Materials
- Earth's Internal Structure & Processes
- Geologic History
- Earth's Hydrosphere
- Earth's Bodies of Water
- Basics of Meteorology
- Earth's Climate & Seasons
- The Solar System & The Earth-Moon-Sun Relationship
- Galaxies & the Universe
- Space Exploration & Technology
- Pennsylvania Grades 4-8 - Science Subject Concentration Flashcards