About This Chapter
Structure & Replication of DNA - Chapter Summary
Use this collection of DNA lessons to refresh your memories of DNA structure and replication. This chapter's expert science instructors examine the complimentary base pairing of DNA's building blocks (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine) as well as the differences between DNA and RNA. You'll also take a look at codon recognition, transcriptional repression and induction, protein synthesis and DNA replication. After reviewing the lessons in this chapter, you should be able to:
- Understand the chemical structure of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
- Identify the building blocks of DNA and explain complimentary base pairing
- Recognize the double helix structure and hereditary molecule
- Differentiate between RNA and DNA, as well as the different types of RNA
- Know what DNA replication is
- Describe protein synthesis in the cell and the central dogma
- Explain the regulation of gene expression
- Make sense of the genetic code
These DNA lessons are taught by expert science instructors who craft each lesson to be concise and engaging. This straightforward teaching approach allows you to quickly review these DNA concepts and focus on the most important information. As you move through the chapter, take the accompanying lesson quizzes to make sure you retain the concepts you've learned. Your course dashboard will track your progress through the chapter, and you can quickly jump to lesson topics by using our interactive video timelines. The chapter material is available at any time, which allows you to study whenever you have free time.
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models
How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!
6. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
7. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
8. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition
Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the TCAP HS EOC - Biology I: Test Prep & Practice course
- Scientific Inquiry, Technology & Engineering
- Cell Organelles
- Cell Structure & Processes
- Organic Biochemistry
- Genetics & Heredity
- Gene Technology
- Ecology, Organism Populations & the Environment
- Humans and the Environment
- Flow of Matter & Energy
- Intro to Biodiversity & Change
- TCAP HS EOC - Biology I Flashcards