About This Chapter
Study of Social Psychology - Chapter Summary
Other people can have wide-ranging effects on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Social psychology seeks to study these effects. In this chapter, you'll explore famous experiments, like Milgram's obedience study and Asch's work with conformity, to see what psychologists have discovered about group interactions. You'll learn the definitions of attribution, altruism, and stereotypes and how these concepts work within the field of psychology. You'll see what influence other people can have on cognitive, behavioral, and emotional actions and reactions. By the end of this chapter you will be able to:
- Define social psychology and get an overview of the field
- Explain the influence of groups on behavior, including reactions like social loafing and groupthink
- Understand how attribution can change our view of a situation
- Discuss what makes people attractive according to Robert Sternberg's triangular model of love
- Explain why people might conform and the influence of Solomon Asch's famous experiment on group conformity
- Understand Stanley Milgram's obedience experiment and what it showed about response to authority
- Compare and contrast the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of attitudes and the ways in which they are learned
- Discuss why we might decide to help others and the social influences that affect altruistic behavior
- List the origins of violent behavior, both biological and cultural
- Explain why stereotypes are formed, what function they serve, and why this is linked to evolution
- Describe the history and theories about the scientific study of employees and workplaces
- Compare and contrast ingroup vs. outgroup bias
- Define social facilitation and give examples
- Describe how self-fulfilling prophesies come about and give examples
This chapter contains many definitions and examples of various aspects of social psychology. They are presented in a clear, concise format that allows you to quickly identify and retain important information. Use the bold-faced terms as a guide of what to study, and be sure to check your knowledge with the self-check quizzes available at the end.
1. Introduction to Social Psychology: Kurt Lewin & Modern Uses
What is social psychology and how is it used? This lesson offers an introduction to the social influences, as well as the group and individual behaviors, covered by this field.
2. Group Behavior in Social Psychology: Definition & Influences
Do individuals behave differently in groups than they would on their own? How do group dynamics affect our decision-making skills? You'll learn about the benefits and potential pitfalls than can come from belonging to a group.
3. Ingroup vs. Outgroup Unconscious Bias
Unconscious bias can play a substantial role in triggering microaggressions in the workplace, and it is often based on ingroup and outgroup status. This lesson discusses unconscious bias and ingroups and outgroups on the job.
4. Attribution Theory: Causes of Behavior & Errors
Do you attribute your success to your abilities and failure to outside forces? You'll explore possible ways of weighing personal responsibility and environmental factors when trying to determine what caused an outcome.
5. Attraction: Types, Cultural Differences & Interpersonal Attraction
What makes people attractive? In this lesson, you'll start with physical attributes and look beyond to other factors that determine attraction. Get ready to explore the love triangle!
6. Conformity: Social Pressure, Solomon Asch & Cultural Influence
Why do we conform? How do factors like group size and social status affect the likelihood of conformity? In this lesson, you'll explore two types of conformity.
7. Obedience & Authority in Psychology: Stanley Milgram's Experiment
What types of social situations make it more likely that we'll obey authority? You'll observe Milgram's electric shock experiment and what it revealed about the relationship between obedience and authority.
8. Attitudes: Components, Formation & Measurement
Have you ever wondered how your attitudes are formed and how they affect your behavior? In this lesson, we'll take a look at some of the internal and external factors that form our attitudes and how our behavior can be affected or changed by various influences.
9. Defining the Bystander Effect: Kitty Genovese Murder & Research by Latane and Darley
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York apartment building. Some of her neighbors heard her screams but didn't call for help. This lesson explains the social phenomenon known as the bystander effect, which helps to explain why Genovese's neighbors didn't help her.
10. What Is Social Facilitation? - Definition, Examples & Studies
Social facilitation is a theory that helps us understand why we are motivated to do certain tasks and less motivated for others. Learn more about social facilitation and how it can be effectively used in a variety of situations, and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
11. What is Altruism in Social Psychology? - Origins & Social Influence
Why do we help others, and when do we decide not to help others? In this lesson, you'll take a look at the biological and social motivation behind altruism.
12. Aggression: Origins, Theories & Differences
What roles do nature and nurture play in aggressive tendencies? You'll explore origins of aggression and how acceptance of this behavior may differ among societies.
13. What is Organizational Behavior? - Definition and History of the Field
Organizational behavior is the study of both group and individual performance and activity within an organization. Internal and external perspectives are two theories of how organizational behavior can be viewed by companies.
14. Influence of Social & Cultural Systems on Sense of Self
This lesson examines how social and cultural systems influence how we see ourselves and construct our personal identities. While the list of contributing factors is nearly infinite, we will discuss several of the most powerful factors.
15. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies in Psychology: Definition & Examples
Self-fulfilling prophecies occur more often than you'd think. In this lesson, we discuss this phenomenon and explain how it's due to a cognitive error. We also go over some classic studies as well as real-life examples.
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Other chapters within the AP Psychology: Exam Prep course
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