About This Chapter
TExES Chemistry: Atomic Structure & Characteristics - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter are designed to reinforce your knowledge of the atom, elements, electrons and the periodic table so that you can answer relevant questions found on the TExES Chemistry 7-12 exam. You'll take an in-depth look at the differences and properties of transition metals and main group elements, as well as notable scientists who pioneered early atomic theory. Additional topics covered here include mass number, atomic number, average atomic mass and isotopes. Once you have mastered the material covered in this chapter, should be able to:
- Identify the subatomic particles that comprise an atom
- Discuss Avogadro's number and the different types of electron configurations
- Describe the Bohr model and atomic spectra
- Explain what elements are
- Detail the properties of groups and periods in the Periodic Table
- Understand valence electrons and the energy levels of atoms of elements
- Outline trends among groups and periods of the periodic table, including ionization energy, electronegativity and atomic and ionic radii
- Define the diagonal relationship, boiling point and metallic character
Video lessons are short but detailed, and they present the material using simple language and examples. Self-assessment quizzes allow you to test your knowledge of the topics covered in the lessons by using the same multiple-choice format found on the actual TExES Chemistry exam.
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
3. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
4. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
5. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
6. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
7. Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements
The periodic table contains a wealth of information. This lesson will explain how to use it to quickly determine the most useful information about the most important electrons. We will be focusing our discussion on valence electrons and energy levels.
8. Atomic and Ionic Radii: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Atoms are VERY tiny. How do we measure their size? This lesson will explain how the size of an atom is measured and teach you how to predict the relative size of an atom based on where it is located on the periodic table.
9. Ionization Energy: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
Do you know someone who has undergone radiation as a form of cancer treatment? Have you ever thought about why X-rays have health risks? Watch the video to find out what these types of radiation are really doing to atoms, define ionization energy and identify ionization trends on the periodic table.
10. Electronegativity: Trends Among Groups and Periods of the Periodic Table
How is fluorine like a child that doesn't share his or her toys? Find out in this video on electronegativity where we will discuss group and periodic trends among the elements.
11. The Diagonal Relationship, Metallic Character, and Boiling Point
What may have once seemed like a bunch of random squares with letters in them is now shaping up to be one very organized chemistry reference. In this lesson you will discover three other trends that are found on the periodic table: the diagonal relationship, trends in metallic character, and trends in boiling point.
12. Transition Metals vs. Main Group Elements: Properties and Differences
Which is better: to be steadfast and consistent or to be a colorful chameleon? This lesson compares and contrasts the main group elements and the transition metals. Then make your own decision!
13. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
14. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
15. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
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Other chapters within the TExES Chemistry 7-12 (240): Practice & Study Guide course
- TExES Chemistry: Equipment, Safety & Measurements
- TExES Chemistry: Scientific Inquiry & Processes
- TExES Chemistry: Matter
- TExES Chemistry: Properties of Gases
- TExES Chemistry: Properties of Ionic & Covalent Bonds
- TExES Chemistry: Chemical Notation & Equations
- TExES Chemistry: Types & Proprieties of Solutions
- TExES Chemistry: Energy & Thermodynamics
- TExES Chemistry: Chemical Kinetics
- TExES Chemistry: Acids, Bases & Chemical Reactions
- TExES Chemistry: Equilibrium
- TExES Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry
- TExES Chemistry: Teaching & Assessing Scientific Inquiry
- TExES Chemistry 7-12 Flashcards