About This Chapter
TExES Life Science: DNA Transcription & Translation - Chapter Summary
DNA transcription and translation is a foundational topic in genetics. You'll likely encounter questions about it on the TExES Life Science 7-12 test. Our corresponding chapter on the subject takes you through all the essentials of DNA transcription and translation. These videos are brief but thorough in their coverage of topics like:
- The central dogma of protein synthesis
- Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription
- Gene expression regulation
- Prokaryotic operons vs eukaryotic splicing
- The genetic code
- Role of peptide bonds and ribosomes in translation
- The steps and sites of mRNA translation
Our lessons are available both as videos and text transcripts. Lessons are created by instructors who are experts in all things science. A short quiz wraps up each lesson for your self-assessment. Use them to identify any weak links in your knowledge or boost your confidence in these areas.
TExES Life Science: DNA Transcription & Translation - Chapter Objectives
The State of Texas uses the TExES (Texas Examinations of Educator Standards) Life Science 7-12 test as part of the certification process for aspiring life science teachers. It is a computer-administered test of about 100 multiple-choice questions, subdivided into six domains. The third domain, on heredity and evolution, comprises about 20% of the test and is where you're most likely to find questions about DNA transcription and translation. This domain, among other objectives, could assess your ability to relate structure and function in terms of nucleic acids and their transcription, translation and regulation, as well as to compare and contrast organization and control of viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes.
Our chapter topics have been chosen to correlate as much as possible with the test objectives. We want you to arrive on test day feeling confident in your preparation!
1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma
Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.
2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA
In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.
3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction
Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.
4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell
Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.
5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons
In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.
6. Overview of the Genetic Code
Ever wonder how so much genetic material can exist in every cell? In this lesson, we take a look at how the genetic code works, specifically with how codons signal for amino acids.
7. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation
Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.
8. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps
Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.
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Other chapters within the TExES Life Science 7-12 (238): Practice & Study Guide course
- TExES Life Science: Overview of the Field
- TExES Life Science: Scientific Inquiry
- TExES Life Science: Lab Equipment, Processes & Safety
- TExES Life Science: Scientific Systems & Models
- TExES Life Science: Matter & Atomic Structure
- TExES Life Science: Cell Biology
- TExES Life Science: Prokaryotic Cells
- TExES Life Science: Cell Communication
- TExES Life Science: Inorganic Chemistry
- TExES Life Science: Organic Compounds
- TExES Life Science: Nucleic Acids
- TExES Life Science: Enzymes
- TExES Life Science: Protists, Fungi & Viruses
- TExES Life Science: Metabolic Biochemistry
- TExES Life Science: DNA Replication
- TExES Life Science: Cell Cycle & Division
- TExES Life Science: Genetics & Heredity
- TExES Life Science: Genetic Mutations
- TExES Life Science: Biological Evolution
- TExES Life Science: Taxonomy & the Diversity of Life
- TExES Life Science: Plant Cells
- TExES Life Science: Plant Biology
- TExES Life Science: Plant Reproduction & Growth
- TExES Life Science: Animals
- TExES Life Science: Human Body Systems
- TExES Life Science: Human Reproduction & Development
- TExES Life Science: Homeostasis of Organisms
- TExES Life Science: Biology & Behavior
- TExES Life Science: Interdependence of Life & Environmental Systems
- Learning & Instruction for the Science Classroom
- TExES Life Science 7-12 Flashcards