About This Chapter
The American Civil War - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
This chapter begins with a discussion of the advantages held by the Northern and Southern states as they mobilized for war, including those related to geography, government, leadership and troop strength. The Anaconda Plan will be covered, a strategic plan designed to defeat the Confederacy both economically and militarily. You'll also revisit the Union attack on the new Confederate capital in Richmond, Virginia, which culminated in the First Battle of Bull Run and resulted in 5,000 casualties.
An important part of the lesson addresses the controversies associated with the Emancipation Proclamation, whereby President Lincoln used his constitutional authority to free three million African Americans in the Confederacy. You'll also learn how the 4-year war came to an end on the steps of a Virginia courthouse, to be followed just two days later by the assassination of President Lincoln. When you've finished watching the videos, you should be able to:
- Define the strategic advantages of both Northern and Southern armies and navies
- Identify the key battles of the Civil War, including military turning points
- Understand the civilian and military costs associated with the Civil War
- Talk about how the Civil War expanded into the territorial West
- Understand the transforming effect of the Emancipation Proclamation
- Identify the events that led up to the Union defeat of the Confederacy
|Civil War Begins: Northern and Southern Advantages Compared||Compare the military advantages of the Northern and Southern forces.|
|The First Battle of Bull Run: Civil War Blood is Shed||Describe what happened during the First Battle of Bull Run.|
|Key Civil War Battles in 1862: Monitor and Merrimac, Antietam, New Orleans and Shiloh||Discuss the major Civil War battles of 1862.|
|The Emancipation Proclamation: Creation, Context and Legacy||Explain the importance and lasting impact of President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.|
|How the Civil War Affected the Economy and Everyday Life in the North and South||Describe the economic and human consequences of the Civil War.|
|Civil War Turning Points: Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Vicksburg||Discuss the military game changers that occurred during the Civil War.|
|End of the Civil War: General Grant Begins the March toward Richmond||Explain the contributing factors that eventually brought the Civil War to an end.|
|Sherman's March to the Sea||Describe what happened during General Sherman's Atlanta campaign.|
|Lincoln's Assassination and Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse||Discuss the events associated with the assassination of President Lincoln and General Lee's surrender at Appomattox.|
1. Civil War Begins: Northern and Southern Advantages Compared
At the outbreak of the American Civil War, both the North and South believed the conflict would be over quickly. But advantages for both the Confederacy and the Union meant a prolonged war between the states. In this lesson, discover some of the advantages that the North and South had.
2. The First Battle of Bull Run: Civil War Blood is Shed
Three months after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, Northern troops attacked Southern forces near the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. The first Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas) was the first major engagement of the Civil War and a terrifying defeat for the Union spectators who came to watch.
3. Key Civil War Battles in 1862: Monitor and Merrimac, Antietam, New Orleans & Shiloh
In 1862, the Union put its Anaconda Plan into action, resulting in several critical events: the Peninsular Campaign, the Battle of Hampton Roads between the ironclads Monitor and Virginia (Merrimack), the Battle of Shiloh, the capture of New Orleans, and the Battle of Antietam.
4. The Emancipation Proclamation: Creation, Context and Legacy
On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation went into effect. More than three million slaves in the South were freed, but the move was not without its critics, both then and now.
5. How the Civil War Affected the Economy and Everyday Life in the North and South
With the strongest and most productive demographic of society away fighting in the Civil War, the task of running homes, communities, and the nation fell to those who stayed behind. The war on the home front changed their lives forever.
6. Civil War Turning Points: Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Vicksburg
In 1863, three events proved to be turning points for the American Civil War: the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Battle of Gettysburg and the Siege of Vicksburg. Learn about these Civil War turning points in this lesson.
7. Battle of Gettysburg: Facts, Summary & Significance
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought in July 1863, was a Union victory that stopped Confederate General Robert E. Lee's second invasion of the North. More than 50,000 men fell as casualties during the 3-day battle, making it the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War.
8. End of the Civil War: General Grant Begins the March Toward Richmond
President Lincoln took a gamble and named Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Union army. They devised a plan to finally take Richmond and win the war in 1864. In this lesson, learn about General Grant's controversial tactics.
9. Sherman's March to the Sea
In 1864, General William T. Sherman began his Atlanta campaign. His success assured Lincoln's re-election in 1864. Sherman then began his destructive March to the Sea in order to capture Savannah.
10. Lincoln's Assassination and Lee's Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse
Two of the most eventful weeks in American history took place between April 1 and April 15, 1865, during which Richmond (the capital of the Confederacy) fell, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse and President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the US History: Middle School course
- First Contacts in the Americas
- Settling North America & the Colonies
- The Revolutionary War
- The Making of a Nation after the American Revolution
- The Virginia Dynasty
- Jacksonian Democracy
- Everyday Life in Antebellum America
- Manifest Destiny & American Expansion
- Buildup to the American Civil War
- After the Civil War: Reconstruction
- American Industrialization of the Late 19th Century
- The Progressive Era of the Early 20th Century
- American Imperialism & World War I
- 1920s America
- America and the Great Depression
- America and the Second World War
- Post-War and the Cold War
- Civil Rights Movements in America
- America in the 1970s
- America in the 1980s
- America from 1992 to the Present