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Ch 4: The Argument

About This Chapter

The Argument chapter of this Critical Thinking Study Guide course is the simplest way to master the principles of argument. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure you learn the essentials of argument.

Who's It For?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering the principles of argument will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about argument. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding what it takes to develop a sound argument or analyze an argument's logic
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning philosophy (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about arguments
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra philosophy learning resources

How It Works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing The Argument chapter exam.

Why It Works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use The Argument chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about argument. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students Will Review:

This chapter helps students review the argument concepts covered in a standard philosophy course. Topics covered include:

  • The four basic parts of an argument
  • Methods for developing claims and counterclaims
  • Uses of logos, ethos and pathos
  • Premise and conclusion indicator words
  • Examples of non-argumentative language
  • The principles of charity and rational acceptance
  • Methods for evaluating an argument's reasoning
  • Strategies for refuting opposing views

11 Lessons in Chapter 4: The Argument
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Parts of An Argument: Claims, Counterclaims, Reasons, and Evidence

1. Parts of An Argument: Claims, Counterclaims, Reasons, and Evidence

To effectively write an argument, you need to know the four basic parts. In this lesson, you will learn the definitions of the four basic parts and why you need them in an argument.

How to Write a Great Argument

2. How to Write a Great Argument

Many times our writing must not just be informative but it must also be persuasive. One of the best ways to be very persuasive is to use a great argument. Learn six steps you can follow to write a great argument.

How to Develop Strong Claims & Counterclaims in Writing

3. How to Develop Strong Claims & Counterclaims in Writing

Argumentative writing requires you to make a claim and support it. In this lesson, you'll learn how best to do so and how counterclaims can strengthen an argument.

Logos, Ethos and Pathos: 3 Ways to Appeal to an Audience in Essays

4. Logos, Ethos and Pathos: 3 Ways to Appeal to an Audience in Essays

Appeal is an important aspect to writing, especially when your goal is to inform and/or persuade the reader in some area. In this lesson, we will examine the three main types of appeal: logos, ethos and pathos

How to Identify and Use Premise and Conclusion Indicator Words

5. How to Identify and Use Premise and Conclusion Indicator Words

This lesson provides examples of words that can be used to indicate the different parts of an argument. You will also learn when these clues can steer you wrong and how to avoid this trap.

How to Identify Nonargumentative Uses of Language

6. How to Identify Nonargumentative Uses of Language

Argumentative texts are extremely common, but not all texts are making an argument. In this lesson, you'll learn how to distinguish some types of non-argumentative texts.

The Importance of the Principle of Charity in Rhetoric

7. The Importance of the Principle of Charity in Rhetoric

This lesson highlights how to become better at understanding and responding to the arguments of others using the principle of charity. You'll learn the two main ways you can apply this principle and how it can help you.

Applying the Principle of Rational Acceptance

8. Applying the Principle of Rational Acceptance

In this lesson, learn what you can do to assess a claim when you cannot verify it using evidence. We'll focus on everyday examples of how you can evaluate the arguments of others.

Guidelines for Evaluating Arguments

9. Guidelines for Evaluating Arguments

When evaluating an argument, there's a lot to consider. In this lesson you'll learn some guidelines for evaluating the quality of an argument, and whether it is sound.

How to Evaluate Reasoning

10. How to Evaluate Reasoning

Evaluating reasoning in an essay or article is an important step in critical analysis. Being able to judge if something is reasonable whether or not you agree with the argument will be our learning focus for this video.

Audience Opposition: Anticipating and Refuting Opposing Views in Your Essays

11. Audience Opposition: Anticipating and Refuting Opposing Views in Your Essays

In addition to planning the major argumentative points you'll make when writing a persuasive paper, you should also think about potential opposing views. This video gives you tips for determining how to effectively anticipate and refute opposing views as you write your argument.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
Not Taken
Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
Not Taken

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