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- Study early atomic theories from Dalton, Rutherford, Millikan and more.
- Learn the structure of atoms and examine atomic number and mass number.
- Review the significance of isotopes and calculations for average atomic mass.
- Use Avogadro's Number to count atoms.
- Study electron configurations in atomic energy levels and the four quantum numbers.
- Review the Bohr Model and atomic spectra.
1. The Atom
The physical basis that everything is composed of is called matter and the smallest unit of matter is called an atom. Learn about the atom, subatomic particles, the nucleus, elements, and the periodic table.
2. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
The current knowledge of atoms and atomic theory has been informed by many scientists going back to Aristotle and Democritus. Learn about the contributions made to early atomic theory by scientists working in more recent times, such as Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Millikan.
3. Atomic Number and Mass Number
An atom is defined as the smallest particle of an element that displays the same properties of that element. Learn about the main components of an atom (protons, neutrons, & electrons), the characteristics of each component, and how to determine the atomic number and the mass number of an atom.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
Isotopes are variations of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons and, subsequently, different atomic masses. Learn how scientists consider isotopes when they calculate average atomic mass.
5. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
Electron configuration is the representation of how the electrons in an atom are arranged, which can be used to predict the properties of an element. Learn about patterns of energy levels in elements on the periodic table, how to identify the number of electrons in a neutral atom, and how to write an electron configuration for neutral atoms.
6. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Quantum numbers describe specific properties of an electron. Learn about atomic orbital, the four quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum, magnetic, and spin), and how to write quantum numbers based on electron configuration.
7. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
The Bohr model of the atom established the existence of a positive nucleus surrounded by electrons in specific energy levels. As electrons move from higher-energy to lower-energy levels, energy in the atom is released in the form of photons. Learn about the Bohr Model, atomic spectra, and how electrons emit different colors of light.
8. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
Matter, or material substances, are identified based on their physical and chemical properties. Explore how this process works and learn how chemists use different properties to determine the classification of matter.
9. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases & Plasma
There are four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Explore the characteristics of each state of matter and how they relate to and differ from each other.
10. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
Matter constantly changes. Learn about the three states of matter, which are gas, liquid, and solid, and understand the differences in chemical versus physical changes in matter.
11. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Matter exists in four states: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. There are six changes of phase that occur among these states. Learn more about the different kinds of phase change, their examples, and the energies involved in these changes.
12. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
The five common types of chemical reactions are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. Explore these different reactions, how to predict reactions, and learn how energy changes.
13. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
Atoms are microscopic and challenging to count as a result. Learn about the importance of understanding the mole, which is simply a large number or quantity of something, also known as Avogadro's number, and how it helps scientists count large numbers of atoms.
14. Nuclear Reaction: Definition & Examples
A nuclear reaction, such as fission and fusion, affects the nucleus of an atom and changes its particles in the process. Explore the differences between nuclear reactions and chemical reactions, the differences between nuclear fission and fusion, and how they are used for energy.
15. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
In endothermic reactions, the system gains heat as the surroundings cool down, and in exothermic reactions, the system loses heat as the surroundings heat up. Explore the differences between these reactions and learn about chemical reactions and enthalpy.
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