About This Chapter
The Atom & Matter - Chapter Summary
Use these engaging, easy-to-understand video lessons to learn about atoms and matter. This online chapter addresses early atomic theories from scientists, including Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan, and explains why Avogadro's number plays such an important role in physics. You also can learn about isotopes, average atomic mass, states of matter (solid, liquid, gas and plasma) and the following topics related to the atom and matter:
- Electron configurations in atomic energy levels
- Quantum numbers: principal, angular momentum, magnetic and spin
- The Bohr model and atomic spectra
- States of matter and chemical versus physical changes to matter
- Phase change: evaporation, condensation, freezing, melting, sublimation and deposition
- Common chemical reactions and energy change
- Endothermic and exothermic reactions
- Nuclear reactions
This chapter on atoms and matter was developed by professional, experienced instructors. The video lessons are brief but thorough and include clickable links that allow you to revisit main points as often as you need. Additionally, each lesson is accompanied by a self-assessment quiz that can help you measure your proficiency and identify areas where you could use additional study time. Also included with each lesson is a written transcript, which could prove particularly beneficial if you learn better by reading than viewing a video.
1. The Atom
Tune into this lesson to find out what matters about matter. What exactly is an atom? And, how do the atoms that make up the elements in the periodic table differ from one another?
2. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
3. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
4. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass
When you drink a glass of water, you are actually drinking a combination of heavy water and light water. What's the difference? Is it harmful? This video will explain the difference between the two types of water and go into detail on the significance of the different isotopes of elements.
5. Electron Configurations in Atomic Energy Levels
This lesson will explain what the electrons are doing inside the atom. Tune in to find out how we specify where they are located and how this location description will help us predict an element's properties.
6. Four Quantum Numbers: Principal, Angular Momentum, Magnetic & Spin
Each electron inside of an atom has its own 'address' that consists of four quantum numbers that communicate a great deal of information about that electron. In this lesson, we will be defining each quantum number and explaining how to write a set of quantum numbers for a specific electron.
7. The Bohr Model and Atomic Spectra
Do you ever wonder where light comes from or how it is produced? In this lesson, we are going to use our knowledge of the electron configurations and quantum numbers to see what goes on during the creation of light.
8. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
9. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
10. States of Matter and Chemical Versus Physical Changes to Matter
The world around us is constantly changing. Chemists put those changes into two main categories: physical changes and chemical changes. This lesson will define and provide examples of each.
11. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
12. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
13. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
14. Nuclear Reaction: Definition & Examples
Learn the differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. Also learn how the nuclear reaction involves subatomic particles including protons and neutrons. Discover the different types of nuclear reactions including fission and fusion and also how a nuclear power plant works to produce energy.
15. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Explore a chemical reaction at the molecular level. Learn about exothermic and endothermic reactions, what they look like and what happens when they occur. Understand enthalpy and how you can use it to predict whether a reaction will be exothermic or endothermic.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 220 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the ILTS Science - Physics (116): Test Practice and Study Guide course
- Scientific Inquiry and Practices
- Cell Structure
- Heredity and Evolution
- Characteristics and Life Functions of Organisms
- Organisms and the Environment
- Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
- Trends of the Periodic Table
- Chemical Bonds and Reactions
- Nuclear Processes
- Waves Overview
- Magnetism & Electricity
- Land, Water, and Atmospheric Systems
- Weather and Storms
- The Universe
- ILTS Science - Physics Flashcards